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    E. Emanuel, et al. What makes clinical research in developing countries ethical? The benchmarks of ethical research. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 930937; N. Dickert & J. Sugarman. Ethical goals of community consultation in research. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 11231127.
  • 2
    M. Constantine. Disentangling Methodologies: The Ethics of Traditional Sampling Methodologies, Community-Based Participatory Research, and Respondent-Driven Sampling. The American Journal of Bioethics 2010; 10: 2224; C. Simon & M. Mosavel. Community Members as Recruiters of Human Subjects: Ethical Considerations. The American Journal of Bioethics 2010; 10: 311; S. Molyneux, et al. Community Members Employed on Research Projects Face Crucial, Often Under-Recognized, Ethical Dilemmas. The American Journal of Bioethics 2010; 10: 2426.
  • 3
    D. Kamuya, et al. 2012. Engaging communities to strengthen research ethics in low-income settings: selection and perceptions of members of a network in coastal Kenya. Developing World Bioethics, in press.
  • 4
    T.A. Lang, et al. Approaching the community about screening children for a multicentre malaria vaccine trial. International Health 2011.
  • 5
    Kamuya, et al. op. cit. note 3; NIMH. The role of Community Advisory Boards (CABs) in Project Eban. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008; 49 Suppl 1: S68S74; K. Shubis, et al. Challenges of establishing a Community Advisory Board (CAB) in a low-income, low-resource setting: experiences from Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Health Research Policy and Systems 2009; 7: 16.
  • 6
    Constantine. op. cit. note 2; Molyneux, et al. op. cit. note 2; Simon & Mosavel. op. cit. note 2.
  • 7
    C.L. Fry. Ethical Implications of Peer-Driven Recruitment: Guidelines from Public Health Research. The American Journal of Bioethics 2010; 10: 1617; T. Phillips. Protecting the Subject: PDR and the Potential for Compromised Consent. The American Journal of Bioethics 2010; 10: 1415; Simon & Mosavel. op. cit. note 2; G. True, et al. Misbehaviors of Front-Line Research Personnel and the Integrity of Community-Based Research. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics 2011; 6: 312.
  • 8
    D. Landy & R. Sharp. Examining the Potential for Exploitation by Local Intermediaries. American Journal of Bioethics 2010; 10: 1213. p. 12.
  • 9
    Lang, et al. op. cit. note 4.
  • 10
    U. Lehmann & D. Sanders. January 2007 Community health workers: What do we know about them? The state of the evidence on programmes, activities, costs and impact on health outcomes of using community health workers. Geneva: World Health Organisation, Evidence and Information for Policy, Department of Human Resources for Health. Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov 2012]. p. 5.
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    A. Haines, et al. Achieving child survival goals: potential contribution of community health workers. Lancet 2007; 369: 21212131; K. Bhattacharyya, et al. October 2001. Community Health Worker: Incentives and Disincentives-How They Affect Motivation, Retention, and Sustainability. Arlington, Virginia: Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival Project (BASICS II) for the United States Agency for International Development; Lehmann & Sanders. op. cit. note 10.
  • 12
    Ibid: D. Mukanga, et al. Community acceptability of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria by community health workers in Uganda. Malaria Journal 2010; 9: 203; H. Schneider & U. Lehmann. Lay health workers and HIV programmes: implications for health systems. AIDS Care 2010; 22 Suppl 1: 6067; Lehmann & Sanders. op. cit. note 10.
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    J.O. Andrews, et al. Use of community health workers in research with ethnic minority women. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 2004; 36: 358365; S.S. Kane, et al. A realist synthesis of randomised control trials involving use of community health workers for delivering child health interventions in low and middle income countries. BMC Health Services Research 2010; 10: (13 October 2010).
  • 14
    Ministry of Health. April 2006. Taking the Kenya Essential Package for Health to the Community-A Strategy for the Delivery of Level One Services. Ministry of Health: Health Sector Reform Secretariat.
  • 15
    V. Marsh, et al. Beginning community engagement at a busy biomedical research programme: Experiences from the KEMRI CGMRC-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya. Social Science and Medicine 2008; 67: 721733; V.M. Marsh, et al. Working with Concepts: The Role of Community in International Collaborative Biomedical Research. Public Health Ethics 2011; 4: 2639.
  • 16
    Ibid; See for example C. Gikonyo, et al. Taking social relationships seriously: lessons learned from the informed consent practices of a vaccine trial on the Kenyan Coast. Soc Sci Med 2008; 67: 708720; Lang, et al. op. cit. note 4.
  • 17
    Kamuya, et al. op. cit. note 3.
  • 18
    Gikonyo, et al. op. cit. note 16.
  • 19
    Ministry of Health. op. cit. note 14.
  • 20
    C. Glenton, et al. The female community health volunteer programme in Nepal: decision makers’ perceptions of volunteerism, payment and other incentives. Social Science & Medicine 2010; 70: 19201927.
  • 21
    Marsh, et al. op. cit. note 15; Participants. 2011. In Consent and Community Engagment in Health Research: Reviewing and Developing Research and Practice. Kilifi.
  • 22
    J.V. Lavery, et al. Towards a framework for community engagement in global health research. Trends in Parasitology 2010; 26: 279283.
  • 23
    Landy & Sharp. op. cit. note 8.
  • 24
    Marsh, et al. op. cit. note 15.
  • 25
    Molyneux, et al. op. cit. note 2. Simon & Mosavel. op. cit. note 2; Kamuya, et al. op. cit. note 3; True, et al. op. cit. note 7.
  • 26
    Glenton, et al. op. cit. note 20.