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Footnotes

  • 1
    See e.g. E. Kalipeni, S. Craddock, et al. 2004. HIV and AIDS in Africa: beyond epidemiology. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • 2
    See B.G. Schoepf. Ethical, methodological and political issues of AIDS research in Central Africa. SocSciMed 1991; 33(7): 749763; B.G. Schoepf. “International AIDS Research in Anthropology: Taking a Critical Perspective on the Crisis. Annual Review of Anthropology 2001; 30: 335361; M.D. April. Rethinking HIV exceptionalism: the ethics of opt-out HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 2010; 88: 703708.
  • 3
    J. Stadler & E. Saethre. Rumours about blood and reimbursements in a microbicide gel trial. African Journal of AIDS Research 2011; 9(4): 345353; see also S.R. Whyte, M.A. Whyte & D. Kyaddondo. Health workers entangled: confidentiality and certification. In: Morality, Hope and Grief. Anthropologies of AIDS in Africa. H.J. Dilger & U. Luig (eds). Oxford: Berghahn, pp. 80.101.
  • 4
    C. Simon & M. Mosavel. Getting personal: Ethics and identity in global health research. Dev World Bioeth 2011; 11(2): 8292.
  • 5
    C.S. Molyneux, W. Mutemi, et al. Trust and informed consent: insights from community members on the Kenyan Coast. SocSciMed 2005; 61: 14631473; J. Fairhead, M. Leach, et al. Where techno-science meets poverty: medical research and the economy of blood in The Gambia, West Africa. Soc Sci Med 2006; 63(4): 11091120; P.W. Geissler, A. Kelly, et al. ‘He is now like a brother, I can even give him some blood’ – relational ethics and material exchanges in a malaria vaccine ‘trial community’ in The Gambia. SocSciMed 2008; 67(5): 696707; C. Gikonyo, P. Bejon, et al. Taking social relationships seriously: Lessons learned from the informed consent practices of a vaccine trial on the Kenyan Coast. SocSciMed 2008; 67(5): 708720. A.H. Kelly, M. Pinder, D. Ameh, S. Majambere, & S. Lindsay. ‘Like Sugar and Honey’: The embedded ethics of a larval control project in The Gambia, SocSciMed 2010; 70(12): 19121919.
  • 6
    T.K. Thomas, R. Masaba, et al. Triple-Antiretroviral Prophylaxis to Prevent Mother-To-Child HIV Transmission through Breastfeeding – The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: A Clinical Trial. PLoS Med 2011; 8(3): e1001015.
  • 7
    Through training opportunities provided by the research organisation all follow-up staff obtained diploma level in subjects such as community health and counselling during the course of the study.
  • 8
    Names and circumstances have been changed for anonymity. Agwata's story is a composite of several stories.
  • 9
    P.W. Geissler. Kachinja are coming: Encounters around a medical research project in a Kenyan village. Africa 2005; 75(2): 173202; P.W. Geissler & R. Pool. Popular concerns with medical research projects in Africa – a critical voice in debates about overseas research ethics. Trop Med Int Health 2006; 11(7): 975982; Fairhead & Leach op.cit. note 5; Stadler & Saethre op. cit. note 3.
  • 10
    Geissler, ibid.
  • 11
    R.J. Prince. HIV and the Moral Economy of Survival in an East African City. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 2012; 26(4): 534556.
  • 12
    Ibid. See P.W. Geissler & R.J. Prince. 2010. The Land is Dying. Contingency, Creativity and Conflict in Western Kenya. Oxford, New York: Berghahn; P. Shipton, P. Debts and trespasses: land, mortgages and the ancestors in western Kenya. Africa 1992; 62(3): 357388.
  • 13
    See e.g. Molyneux et al. op.cit.; Fairhead et al. op.cit.; Geissler et al. op.cit; Gikonyo et al. op.cit.); P.W. Geissler. 2011. Studying Trial Communities: Anthropological and Historical Inquiries into Ethos, Politics and Economy of Medical Research in Africa. In: Evidence, Ethos and Ethnography: The Anthropology and History of Medical Research in Africa. P. W. Geissler and C. Molyneux (eds). Oxford: Berghahn: 128.
  • 14
    A. Kelly, 2011. Remember Bambali: Evidence, Ethics and the Co-production of Truth. In: Evidence, Ethos and Ethnography: The Anthropology and History of Medical Research in Africa. P. W. Geissler and C. Molyneux (eds). Oxford: Berghahn: 229244.
  • 15
    See e.g. Geissler et al. 2008, op.cit.