• Open Access

Tail structure is formed when blastocoel roof contacts blastocoel floor in Xenopus laevis



The tail organizer has been assessed by such transplantation methods as the Einsteck procedure. However, we found that simple wounding of blastocoel roof (BCR) made it possible to form secondary tails without any transplantation in Xenopus laevis. We revealed that the ectopic expression of Xbra was blocked by inhibiting the contact between BCR and blastocoel floor (BCF), and wounding per se seemed to be not directly related to the secondary tail formation. Therefore, the secondary tail might be induced by the contact between BCR and BCF due to the leak of blastocoel fluid from the wound. This secondary tail was similar to the original tail in the expression pattern of tail genes, and in the fact that the inhibition of fibroblast growth factor signaling prevented the secondary tail induction. Our results imply that the secondary tail formation reflects the developmental processes of the original tail, indicating that simple wounding of BCR is useful for the analysis of tail formation in normal development.