• agonists;
  • mesenchymal stem cell;
  • Toll-like receptor

Infective factors cause the perpetuation of inflammation as a result of the permanent exposure of the immune system to exogenous or endogenous products of virus or bacteria. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be exposed to this infective environment, which may change the characteristics and therapeutic potency of these MSCs. MSCs have the ability to repair damaged and inflamed tissues and regulate immune responses. In this study, we demonstrated that MSCs express functional Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3 and 4, the Toll-like receptor families that recognize the signals of viral and bacterial mimics, respectively. The specific stimulations did not affect the self-renewal and apoptosis capabilities of MSCs but instead promoted their differentiation into the adipocytes and osteoblasts with the TLR3 ligand. The reverse of these results were obtained with the TLR4 ligand. The migration of the MSCs to stimulate either of the two specific ligands was inhibited at different times, whereas the immunogenicity and immunosuppressive properties of the MSCs were not weakened unlike in the MSCs group. These results suggest that TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation affect the characterization of MSCs.