Validation of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication under Six outcome measure
Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013
© The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Volume 55, Issue 6, pages 546–552, June 2013
How to Cite
Thomas-Stonell, N., Oddson, B., Robertson, B. and Rosenbaum, P. (2013), Validation of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication under Six outcome measure. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55: 546–552. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12123
- Issue published online: 24 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 DEC 2012
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Grant Numbers: 86573, 86884
- Bloorview Research Institute
The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS©),a tool designed to measure changes in communication skills in preschool children.
Participating families' children (n=97; 68 males, 29 females; mean age 2y 8mo; SD 1.04y, range 10mo–4y 11mo) were recruited through eight Canadian organizations. The children were on a waiting list for speech and language intervention. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire – Social/Emotional (ASQ-SE) and the FOCUS three times: at assessment and at the start and end of treatment. A second sample (n=28; 16 males 12 females) was recruited from another organization to correlate the FOCUS scores with speech, intelligibility and language measures. Second sample participants ranged in age from 3 years 1 month to 4 years 9 months (mean 3y 11mo; SD 0.41y). At the start and end of treatment, children were videotaped to obtain speech and language samples. Parents and speech–language pathologists (SLPs) independently completed the FOCUS tool. SLPs who were blind to the pre/post order of the videotapes analysed the samples.
The FOCUS measured significantly more change (p<0.01) during treatment than during the waiting list period. It demonstrated both convergent and discriminant validity against the ASQ-SE. The FOCUS change corresponded to change measured by a combination of clinical speech and language measures (κ=0.31, p<0.05).
The FOCUS shows strong construct validity as a change-detecting instrument.