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Aim

The aim of this systematic review was to assess the current validity and reliability of radiological methods used to measure proximal hip geometry in children with cerebral palsy.

Method

A search was conducted using relevant keywords and inclusion/exclusion criteria of the MEDLINE, CINALH Plus, Embase, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, The Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO databases.

Results

The migration percentage using X-rays showed excellent reliability and concurrent validity with three-dimensional (3D) measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans. The acetabular index, measured using X-rays had good reliability but moderate concurrent validity with 3D CT measurements; 3D CT scan indexes had greater reliability. The measurement of the neck shaft angle using X-rays showed excellent concurrent validity with measurements from 3D CT scans and excellent reliability. Regarding femoral anteversion, one study found an excellent correlation between two-dimensional CT and clinical assessment and excellent reliability. Two others showed less evidence for the use of CT ultrasounds.

Interpretation

Most of the X-ray-based measurements showed good to excellent metrological properties. More metrological evidence is needed for the assessment of femoral anteversion. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-based measurements have great potential although very little metrological evidence is available.