• 1
    Cook RE, Schneider I, Hazlewood ME, Hillman SJ, Robb JE. Gait analysis alters decision-making in cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 2003; 23: 2925.
  • 2
    DeLuca PA, Davis RB 3rd, Ounpuu S, Rose S, Sirkin R. Alterations in surgical decision making in patients with cerebral palsy based on three-dimensional gait analysis. J Pediatr Orthop 1997; 17: 60814.
  • 3
    Kay RM, Dennis S, Rethlefsen S, Reynolds RA, Skaggs DL, Tolo VT. The effect of preoperative gait analysis on orthopedic decision making. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2000; 372: 21722.
  • 4
    Lofterod B, Terjesen T, Skaaret I, Huse AB, Jahnsen R. Preoperative gait analysis has a substantial effect on orthopedic decision making in children with cerebral palsy: comparison between clinical evaluation and gait analysis in 60 patients. Acta Orthop 2007; 78: 7480.
  • 5
    Wren TA, Gorton GE 3rd, Ounpuu S, Tucker CA. Efficacy of clinical gait analysis: a systematic review. Gait Posture 2011; 34: 14953.
  • 6
    Chang FM, Seidl AJ, Muthusamy K, Meininger AK, Carollo JJ. Effectiveness of instrumented gait analysis in children with cerebral palsy – comparison of outcomes. J Pediatr Orthop 2006; 26: 6126.
  • 7
    Filho MC, Yoshida R, Carvalho Wda S, Stein HE, Novo NF. Are the recommendations from three-dimensional gait analysis associated with better postoperative outcomes in patients with cerebral palsy? Gait Posture 2008; 28: 31622.
  • 8
    Gough M, Shortland AP. Can clinical gait analysis guide the management of ambulant children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy? J Pediatr Orthop 2008; 28: 87983.
  • 9
    Wren TA, Otsuka NY, Bowen RE, et al. Outcomes of lower extremity orthopedic surgery in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy with and without gait analysis: results of a randomized controlled trial. Gait Posture 2012. Epub ahead of print December 12, 2012.
  • 10
    Wren TA, Rethlefsen S, Kay RM. Prevalence of specific gait abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy: influence of cerebral palsy subtype, age, and previous surgery. J Pediatr Orthop 2005; 25: 7983.
  • 11
    O'Sullivan R, Walsh M, Hewart P, Jenkinson A, Ross LA, O'Brien T. Factors associated with internal hip rotation gait in patients with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 2006; 26: 53741.
  • 12
    Fabry G, Cheng LX, Molenaers G. Normal and abnormal torsional development in children. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1994; 00: 226.
  • 13
    Beals RK. Developmental changes in the femur and acetabulum in spastic paraplegia and diplegia. Dev Med Child Neurol 1969; 11: 30313.
  • 14
    Fabry G, MacEwen GD, Shands AR Jr. Torsion of the femur. A follow-up study in normal and abnormal conditions. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1973; 55: 172638.
  • 15
    Crane L. Femoral torsion and its relation to toeing-in and toeing-out. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1959; 41-A: 4218.
  • 16
    Lincoln TL, Suen PW. Common rotational variations in children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2003; 11: 31220.
  • 17
    Laplaza FJ, Root L, Tassanawipas A, Glasser DB. Femoral torsion and neck-shaft angles in cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 1993; 13: 1929.
  • 18
    Dreher T, Wolf SI, Heitzmann D, et al. Long-term outcome of femoral derotation osteotomy in children with spastic diplegia. Gait Posture 2012; 36: 46770.
  • 19
    Dreher T, Wolf S, Braatz F, Patikas D, Doderlein L. Internal rotation gait in spastic diplegia–critical considerations for the femoral derotation osteotomy. Gait Posture 2007; 26: 2531.
  • 20
    Kay RM. Lower extremity surgery in children with cerebral palsy. In: Tolo VT, Skaggs DL, editors. Master Techniques in Orthopedic Surgery: Pediatrics. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2008: 83119.
  • 21
    Ruwe PA, Gage JR, Ozonoff MB, DeLuca PA. Clinical determination of femoral anteversion. A comparison with established techniques. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1992; 74: 82030.
  • 22
    Wren TA, Do KP, Hara R, Rethlefsen SA. Use of a patella marker to improve tracking of dynamic hip rotation range of motion. Gait Posture 2008; 27: 5304.
  • 23
    Wren TA, Woolf K, Kay RM. How closely do surgeons follow gait analysis recommendations and why? J Pediatr Orthop B 2005; 14: 2025.
  • 24
    Wren TA, Elihu KJ, Mansour S, et al. Differences in implementation of gait analysis recommendations based on affiliation with a gait laboratory. Gait Posture 2013; 37: 2069.
  • 25
    Kay RM, Rethlefsen S, Reed M, Do KP, Skaggs DL, Wren TA. Changes in pelvic rotation after soft tissue and bony surgery in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 2004; 24: 27882.