• 1
    Shin M, Besser LM, Kucik JE, Lu C, Siffel C, Correa A. Prevalence of Down syndrome among children and adolescents in 10 regions of the United States. Pediatrics 2009; 124: 156571.
  • 2
    Nadel L. Down's syndrome: a genetic disorder in biobehavioral perspective. Genes Brain Behav 2003; 2: 15666.
  • 3
    Shott SR, Amin R, Chini B, Heubi C, Hotze S, Akers R. Obstructive sleep apnea: should all children with Down syndrome be tested? Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006; 132: 4326.
  • 4
    Dyken ME, Lin-Dyken DC, Poulton S, Zimmerman MB, Sedars E. Prospective polysomnographic analysis of obstructive sleep apnea in Down syndrome. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 65560.
  • 5
    Ng DK, Hui HN, Chan CH, et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea in children with Down syndrome. Singapore Med J 2006; 47: 7749.
  • 6
    Ashworth A, Hill CM, Karmiloff-Smith A, Dimitriou D. Cross syndrome comparison of sleep problems in children with Down syndrome and Williams syndrome. Res Dev Disabil 2013; 34: 157280.
  • 7
    Marcus CL, Keens TG, Bautista DB, von Pechmann WS, Ward SLD. Obstructive sleep apnea in children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics 1991; 88: 1329.
  • 8
    Canessa N, Castronovo V, Cappa SF, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea: brain structural changes and neurocognitive function before and after treatment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 183: 141926.
  • 9
    Marin JM, Carrizo SJ, Vicente E, Agusti AG. Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in men with obstructive sleep apnoea–hypopnoea with or without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure: an observational study. Lancet 2005; 36: 104653.
  • 10
    Beebe DW, Gozal D. Obstructive sleep apnea and the prefrontal cortex: towards a comprehensive model linking nocturnal upper airway obstruction to daytime cognitive and behavioral deficits. J Sleep Res 2002; 11: 116.
  • 11
    Edgin JO. Cognition in Down syndrome: a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 2013; 4: 30717.
  • 12
    Pennington BF, Moon J, Edgin JO, Stedron J, Nadel L. The neuropsychology of Down syndrome: evidence for hippocampal dysfunction. Child Dev 2003; 74: 7593.
  • 13
    Fernandez F, Edgin JO. Poor sleep as a precursor to cognitive decline in Down syndrome: a hypothesis. J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism 2013; 3: 124.
  • 14
    Andreou G, Galanopoulou C, Gourgoulianis K, Karapetsas A, Molyvdas P. Cognitive status in Down syndrome individuals with sleep disordered breathing deficits (SDB). Brain Cogn 2002; 50: 1459.
  • 15
    Chen CC, Spanò G, Edgin JO. The impact of sleep disruption on executive function in Down syndrome. Res Dev Disabil 2013; 34: 20339.
  • 16
    Edgin JO, Mason GM, Allman MJ, et al. Development and validation of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery for Down syndrome. J Neurodev Disord 2010; 2: 14964.
  • 17
    American Sleep Disorders Association. EEG arousals: scoring rules and examples. Sleep 1992; 15: 17483.
  • 18
    Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson A, Quan SF. The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: Rules, Terminology and Technical Specifications. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007.
  • 19
    Goodwin JL, Enright PL, Kaemingk KL, et al. Feasibility of using unattended polysomnography in children for research-report of the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study (TuCASA). Sleep 2001; 24: 93746.
  • 20
    Witmans MB, Keens TG, Ward SLD, Marcus CL. Obstructive hypopneas in children and adolescents: normal values [Letter]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 168: 1540.
  • 21
    Owens JA, Spirito A, McGuinn M. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ): psychometric properties of a survey instrument for school-aged children. Sleep 2000; 23: 19.
  • 22
    Breslin JH, Edgin JO, Bootzin RR, Goodwin JL, Nadel L. Parental report of sleep problems in Down syndrome. J Intellect Disabil Res 2011; 55: 108691.
  • 23
    Kaufman AS, Kaufman NL. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, 2nd edn. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service, 2004.
  • 24
    Conners CK, Sitarenios G, Parker JD, Epstein JN. The revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R): factor structure, reliability, and criterion validity. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1998; 26: 25768.
  • 25
    Bruininks RH, Woodcock RW, Weatherman RF, Hill BK. Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised Comprehensive Manual. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing, 1996.
  • 26
    Swainson R, Hodges JR, Galton CJ, et al. Early detection and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and depression with neuropsychological tasks. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2001; 12: 26580.
  • 27
    Gómez RL, Bootzin RR, Nadel L. Naps promote abstraction in language-learning infants. Psychol Sci 2006; 17: 6704.
    Direct Link:
  • 28
    Stickgold R. Parsing the role of sleep in memory processing. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2013; 23: 17.
  • 29
    Shott SR, Donnelly LF. Cine magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of persistent airway obstruction after tonsil and adenoidectomy in children with Down syndrome. Laryngoscope 2004; 114: 17249.
  • 30
    O'Donnell AR, Bjornson CL, Bohn SG, Kirk VG. Compliance rates in children using noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure. Sleep 2006; 29: 6518.