Determination of interventions for upper extremity tactile impairment in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review
Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014
© 2014 Mac Keith Press
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Volume 56, Issue 9, pages 815–832, September 2014
How to Cite
Auld, M. L., Russo, R., Moseley, G. L. and Johnston, L. M. (2014), Determination of interventions for upper extremity tactile impairment in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 56: 815–832. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12439
- Issue published online: 12 AUG 2014
- Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 JAN 2014
This study reviewed interventions suitable for treating tactile dysfunction in children with cerebral palsy (CP).
A systematic review was conducted of six databases, searched for population: (‘brain injury’ OR ‘cerebral palsy’ OR ‘stroke’ OR ‘cerebrovascular accident’) and intervention: (‘tactile’ OR ‘sensation’). Inclusion criteria were: (1) published after 1950 in English; (2) participants older than 4 years with brain injury; (3) upper limb intervention; and (4) examined tactile registration or perception.
Of 2938 studies identified, 30 met the inclusion criteria. Results from included studies indicated that tactile function improved in adults with stroke after transfer enhanced training (t=2.75, p=0.004), stimulus specific training (p<0.001), ice therapy (F=5.71, p=0.028), mirror therapy (F=7.7, p=0.009), and functional deafferentation using an anaesthetic cream (t=3.76; p<0.01). No intervention reported improvement in tactile dysfunction for children with CP.
Research is required to develop tactile interventions for children with CP that integrate methodology from effective approaches for adults after stroke. Stimulus specific training, transfer enhanced training, and mirror therapy are promising. Other approaches are less suitable for children because of invasiveness (electrical stimulation), safety (ice therapy), or limitation of bimanual function (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics, pneumatic cuff).