The cost-effectiveness of the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) structured education programme: an update using the Sheffield Type 1 Diabetes Policy Model


  • This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.



To estimate the cost-effectiveness of training in flexible intensive insulin therapy [as provided in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) structured education programme] compared with no training for adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in the UK using the Sheffield Type 1 Diabetes Policy Model.


The Sheffield Type 1 Diabetes Policy Model was used to simulate the development of long-term microvascular and macrovascular diabetes-related complications and the occurrence of diabetes-related adverse events in 5000 adults with Type 1 diabetes. Total costs and quality-adjusted life years were estimated from a National Health Service perspective over a lifetime horizon, discounted at a rate of 3.5%. The treatment effectiveness of DAFNE was modelled as a reduction in HbA1c that affected the risk of developing long-term diabetes-related complications. Probabilistic and structural sensitivity analyses were conducted.


DAFNE resulted in greater life expectancy and reduced incidence of some diabetes-related complications compared with no DAFNE. DAFNE was found to generate an average of 0.0294 additional quality-adjusted life years for an additional cost of £426 per patient, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £14 400 compared with no DAFNE. There was a 54% probability that DAFNE would be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life year.


The results of this study suggest that DAFNE is a cost-effective structured education programme for people with Type 1 diabetes and support its provision by the National Health Service in the UK.