Patients with Type 1 diabetes consuming alcoholic spirits have an increased risk of microvascular complications

Authors

  • V. Harjutsalo,

    1. Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    2. Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    3. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Diabetes Prevention Unit, Helsinki, Finland
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    • These authors contributed equally to this article

  • M. Feodoroff,

    1. Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    2. Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
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    • These authors contributed equally to this article

  • C. Forsblom,

    1. Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    2. Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
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  • P.-H. Groop,

    Corresponding author
    1. Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    2. Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    3. The Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Vic., Australia
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  • and on behalf of the FinnDiane Study Group


Abstract

Aims

Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the amount of alcohol consumption and the type of beverage on the risk of diabetic nephropathy and severe diabetic retinopathy.

Methods

The alcohol consumption data were available from 3608 patients with Type 1 diabetes participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane). We assessed the cross-sectional association between alcohol consumption and diabetic nephropathy as well as retinopathy. Patients were divided into different groups according to the amount of alcohol and the type of beverage they were consuming.

Results

In the multivariate analysis, the odds ratio for nephropathy was 1.39 (95% CI 1.05–1.84) for abstainers and 2.44 (95% CI 1.49–3.99) for former users compared with light consumers. The results were similar in retinopathy, with an odds ratio of 1.42 (95% CI 1.11–1.82) for abstainers and 1.73 (95% CI 1.07–2.79) for former users. No difference between light consumers and moderate or heavy consumers was observed. Compared with wine drinkers, men consuming mostly alcoholic spirits had a higher risk of nephropathy with an odds ratio of 2.80 (95% CI 1.15–6.81). In women, there was no difference in the risk of nephropathy between the different beverage types. Alcoholic spirit consumers had a higher risk of retinopathy with an odds ratio of 2.32 (95% CI 1.35–4.00). There was no difference between wine and beer consumers.

Conclusions

Alcoholic spirit drinkers carry a higher risk of nephropathy and severe retinopathy compared with wine drinkers. Lifelong abstainers and former users of alcohol have a higher risk of nephropathy and severe retinopathy compared with light consumers.

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