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Adolescents and young adults with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes demonstrate greater carotid intima-media thickness than those with Type 1 diabetes

Authors

  • W. Gu,

    1. Department of Endocrine and Metabolic diseases, Rui-jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Y. Huang,

    1. Department of Endocrine and Metabolic diseases, Rui-jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.
    • The present address of Yuxing Huang is the Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
  • Y. Zhang,

    1. Department of Endocrine and Metabolic diseases, Rui-jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine
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  • J. Hong,

    1. Department of Endocrine and Metabolic diseases, Rui-jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine
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  • Y. Liu,

    1. Department of Ultrasound, Rui-jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine
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  • W. Zhan,

    1. Department of Ultrasound, Rui-jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine
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  • G. Ning,

    1. Department of Endocrine and Metabolic diseases, Rui-jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine
    2. Endocrine and Metabolic E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities (EISU) and Key Laboratory for Endocrinology and Metabolism of Chinese Health Ministry, Shanghai, China
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  • W. Wang

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Endocrine and Metabolic diseases, Rui-jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine
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Abstract

Aim

To compare the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with newly diagnosed Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes ranging from 14 to 30 years of age.

Methods

Demographic, anthropometric and laboratory data were obtained from 404 adolescents and young adults (103 subjects with Type 1 diabetes, 94 with Type 2 diabetes, 153 obese subjects and 54 normal control subjects). Carotid intima-media thickness was assessed based on Doppler ultrasound examination and compared among the four groups.

Results

Our data showed significant increases in carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and obese subjects compared with the control subjects, with those in the group with Type 2 diabetes demonstrating the greatest change (P < 0.001). Age, BMI, percentage of fat, waist–hip ratio and total triglycerides were significantly correlated with both common and internal carotid intima-media thickness segments. From a stepwise multiple linear regression model, the independent determinants of common carotid intima-media thickness were age, BMI, HbA1c and HDL cholesterol (adjusted R2 = 0.152, P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex and HbA1c, the odds ratio for increased carotid intima-media thickness was 1.67 (95% CI 1.19–2.33, P = 0.003) for obese subjects, 2.38 (95% CI 1.59–9.47, P = 0.001) for subjects with Type 1 diabetes and 3.93 (95% CI 1.90–6.07, P = 0001) for subjects with Type 2 diabetes compared with the control subjects.

Conclusions

Compared with young control subjects, we found significant increases in carotid intima-media thickness in patients with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes, with patients with Type 2 diabetes showing greater carotid intima-media thickness. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, could cause vessel changes even in adolescents and young adults.

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