Diabetic Medicine

Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 5

May 2014

Volume 31, Issue 5

Pages 509–636

  1. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    3. Commentary
    4. Review Articles
    5. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Diabetes, sleep and metformin (page 509)

      G. A. Hitman

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12433

  2. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    3. Commentary
    4. Review Articles
    5. Research Articles
  3. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    3. Commentary
    4. Review Articles
    5. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
      Kaleidoscope model of diabetes care: time for a rethink? (pages 522–530)

      K. D. Barnard, C. E. Lloyd, P. A. Dyson, M. J. Davies, S. O'Neil, K. Naresh, J. Lawton, R. Ziegler and R. I. G. Holt

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12400

      What's new?

      • The Kaleidoscope model of care presents a novel, holistic, tailored and individualized approach to healthcare delivery for people with diabetes through an assessment of an individual's current regimen, barriers and motivation and available support resources.
      • The model promotes the specific needs of individuals with diabetes.
      • These needs are dynamic, taking a different shape at different points in time, recognizing and adapting to the range of care needed.
      • It is a flexible model that can be applied in different healthcare settings.
  4. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    3. Commentary
    4. Review Articles
    5. Research Articles
    1. Epidemiology

      Cardiovascular disease risk factors in the South Asian population living in Kuwait: a cross-sectional study (pages 531–539)

      N. Elkum, M. Al-Arouj, M. Sharifi, K. Behbehani and A. Bennakhi

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12386

      What's new?

      • This study investigated, for the first time, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and identified independent factors associated with Type 2 diabetes in a South Asian population residing in Kuwait.
      • This study shows a high prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors among South Asians, with rates that even exceed those reported in similar populations in Europe, North America, and in their homeland.
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Associations of blood glucose and prevalent diabetes with risk of cardiovascular disease in 500 000 adult Chinese: the China Kadoorie Biobank (pages 540–551)

      F. Bragg, L. Li, M. Smith, Y. Guo, Y. Chen, I. Millwood, Z. Bian, R. Walters, J. Chen, L. Yang, R. Collins, R. Peto, Y. Lu, B. Yu, X. Xie, Y. Lei, G. Luo, Z. Chen and on behalf ofthe China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12392

      What's new?

      • Little is known about the role of diabetes as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the Chinese population. Below the threshold for diabetes, substantial uncertainty exists about the association of blood glucose levels with cardiovascular disease in Chinese populations and more generally.
      • Data from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million middle-aged Chinese adults demonstrated a doubling of the odds of prevalent ischaemic heart disease and stroke/transient ischaemic attack among people with self-reported diabetes. Among people without prior diabetes, blood glucose levels were positively associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease.
      • A comprehensive understanding of the role of both blood glucose levels and diabetes in cardiovascular disease risk is fundamental to effective disease prevention and control.
    3. Pathophysiology

      Elevated liver enzymes are related to progression to impaired glucose tolerance in Japanese men (pages 552–558)

      R. Oka, T. Aizawa, K. Yagi, K. Hayashi, M. Kawashiri and M. Yamagishi

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12345

      What's new?

      • The association between elevated liver enzymes and progression to impaired glucose tolerance was investigated using a longitudinal study design.
      • The results suggested that the elevation of alanine aminotransferase occurs at a very early stage in the natural course of Type 2 diabetes, the progression from normal to impaired glucose tolerance, in Japanese men.
    4. Increased intestinal permeability to oral chromium (51Cr) -EDTA in human Type 2 diabetes (pages 559–563)

      F. Horton, J. Wright, L. Smith, P. J. Hinton and M. D. Robertson

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12360

      What's new?

      • There is increasing evidence linking an inflammatory cascade originating in the gut with systemic inflammation and the development of metabolic disease.
      • An early and key feature of this cascade is an increase in intestinal permeability, although this has yet to be demonstrated in human diabetes.
      • In this proof of concept study, we demonstrate for the first time an increase in intestinal permeability in people with Type 2 diabetes.
    5. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration does not independently predict incident diabetes in older women (pages 564–569)

      A. L. Schafer, N. Napoli, L. Lui, A. V. Schwartz, D. M. Black and forthe Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

      Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12368

      What's new?

      • There is increasing interest in vitamin D deficiency as a potentially modifiable risk factor for diabetes; however, longitudinal studies have yielded inconsistent results.
      • We examined the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and incident diabetes in the large, well-established Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.
      • We found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was not independently associated with diabetes risk in the older women included in that study. While those with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations appear less likely to develop diabetes, this is largely explained by their lower BMI.
    6. Treatment

      Drug treatment for diabetes in nursing home residents (pages 570–576)

      P. de Souto Barreto, C. Sanz, B. Vellas, M. Lapeyre-Mestre and Y. Rolland

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12354

      What's new?

      • This work described for the first time the drug treatment used to treat diabetes in a large sample of vulnerable older adults living in nursing homes.
      • Our results suggest that adverse health events can be impacted by the type of anti-diabetic agents prescribed, with drugs that have a high potential to induce hypoglycaemia being associated with both increased disability levels (worse functional ability) and emergency department visits in the last 12 months.
    7. You have free access to this content
      The relationship between metformin therapy and sleep quantity and quality in patients with Type 2 diabetes referred for potential sleep disorders (pages 577–580)

      F. Kajbaf, S. Fendri, A. Basille-Fantinato, M. Diouf, D. Rose, V. Jounieaux and J.-D. Lalau

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12362

      What's new?

      • We sought to determine whether metformin therapy was related to sleep variables in a group of patients with Type 2 diabetes referred for potential sleep disorders.
      • We observed an association between metformin use on the one hand and better sleep quality and quantity on the other.
      • The observed differences between metformin users and non-users persisted in a multivariate analysis.
    8. Complications

      Reference values of skin autofluorescence as an estimation of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products in a general Slovak population (pages 581–585)

      K. Simon Klenovics, R. Kollárová, J. Hodosy, P. Celec and K. Šebeková

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12326

      What's new?

      • Slovak adults, presenting one of the highest rates of cardiovascular mortality within European Union (EU-27) countries, display lower skin autofluorescence (a widely used estimate of cardiovascular risk in high-risk patient groups) than age-matched Dutch adults, who have the third-lowest cardiovascular mortality among EU-27 countries.
      • In adults, regular physical exercise is associated with lower skin autofluorescence.
      • Formula-fed (advanced glycation end product-rich diet) infants have higher skin autofluorescence than their breast milk-fed counterparts.
      • Data on reference ranges of skin autofluorescence in diverse populations and knowledge of different (lifestyle) factors affecting it could facilitate the interpretation of data on skin autofluorescence in clinical practice
    9. The association between BMI and hospitalization for heart failure in 83 021 persons with Type 2 diabetes: a population-based study from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry (pages 586–594)

      S. Glogner, A. Rosengren, M. Olsson, S. Gudbjörnsdottir, A.-M. Svensson and M. Lind

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12340

      What's new?

      • This paper demonstrates how different grades of BMI are associated with the risk of hospitalization for heart failure among people with Type 2 diabetes; to our knowledge, this aspect has not been studied before.
      • Obese men and women have a large increase in risk of hospitalization for heart failure with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and the risk rises even more in the higher BMI classes.
      • The importance of this association is obvious with the realization that 80% of the people with Type 2 diabetes in this study were overweight or obese.
    10. Association between lung capacity measurements and abnormal glucose metabolism: findings from the Crossroads study (pages 595–599)

      D. Yu and D. Simmons

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12346

      What's new?

      • This paper is the first to investigate the association between lung capacity and metabolic syndrome (by components) and Type 2 diabetes in a rural Australian population. We observed that people with a greater number of metabolic syndrome components are more likely to have poorer lung capacity. People with Type 2 diabetes have the poorest lung capacity.
      • Our data suggest that spirometry variables independently predict metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes.
    11. ‘Cough-triggered’ tuberculosis screening among adults with diabetes in Tanzania (pages 600–605)

      G. Mtwangambate, S. E. Kalluvya, B. R. Kidenya, R. Kabangila, J. A. Downs, L. R. Smart, D. W. Fitzgerald and R. N. Peck

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12348

      What's new?

      • Data regarding tuberculosis among adults with diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa are few and the World Health Organization has advocated research regarding tuberculosis screening strategies in this population, suggesting screening for cough as a first step.
      • In this prospective tuberculosis screening study among adults with diabetes in Tanzania, the incidence of tuberculosis was sevenfold greater than in the general adult population.
      • We also assessed the strengths and weaknesses of a cough-triggered tuberculosis screening strategy that may be appropriate for resource-limited settings.
      • These data illustrate the importance of screening for tuberculosis among adults with diabetes in Africa and provide one possible low-cost strategy.
    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      New estimates of the burden of acute community-acquired infections among older people with diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records (pages 606–614)

      H. I. McDonald, D. Nitsch, E. R. C. Millett, A. Sinclair and S. L. Thomas

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12384

      What's new?

      • The present large cohort study is the first to describe the burden of acute infections, including infections managed in primary care, among older people with diabetes for use in healthcare planning and communication of risk with patients.
      • On average per year among 1000 patients there were 152.7 lower respiratory tract infections (95% CI 151.3–154.1) and 99.6 urinary tract infections (95% CI 98.4–100.8).
      • All infection rates were found to be increasing over time.
      • Within 28 days of pneumonia, 81.4% of patients were hospitalized and 32.1% had died.
      • An appreciable proportion of 28-day hospitalizations after lower respiratory or urinary tract infection were for cardiovascular conditions.
    13. Care Delivery

      Improving quality of care in people with Type 2 diabetes through the Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative: a long-term cost-effectiveness analysis (pages 615–623)

      C. B. Giorda, A. Nicolucci, F. Pellegrini, C. K. Kristiansen, B. Hunt, W. J. Valentine and G. Vespasiani

      Version of Record online: 24 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12366

      What's new?

      • The Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative has described improvements in physiological measurements, but this has involved increased short-term costs.
      • This analysis is the first to evaluate the long-term clinical and cost outcomes of enrolling people with Type 2 diabetes in this initiative.
      • Over patient lifetimes, enrolment in the initiative is associated with a lower incidence of diabetes-related complications, longer life expectancy, longer quality-adjusted life expectancy, and lower direct medical costs.
      • Improving diabetes care in Italy through this initiative results in significant clinical benefits and cost-savings over the long term.
    14. Pre-hospital delay in patients with diabetic foot problems: influencing factors and subsequent quality of care (pages 624–629)

      J. Yan, Y. Liu, B. Zhou and M. Sun

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12388

      What's new?

      • This study represents the first examination of pre-hospital delay in patients with diabetic foot problems in China.
      • A number of factors were involved in patient delay and contributed to their poor outcomes.
    15. Educational and Psychological Issues

      Depressive symptoms linked to 1-h plasma glucose concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test in men and women with the metabolic syndrome (pages 630–636)

      O. Birnbaum-Weitzman, R. Goldberg, B. E. Hurwitz, M. M. Llabre, M. D. Gellman, M. Gutt, J. R. McCalla, A. J. Mendez and N. Schneiderman

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12356

      What's new?

      • Findings highlight the value of examining the 1-h plasma glucose concentration from an oral glucose tolerance test in addition to fasting and 2-h assessments when investigating the link between depression and hyperglycaemia.
      • This study further expands previous findings highlighting the 1-h plasma glucose concentration from an oral glucose tolerance test as an indicator of metabolic abnormalities in the pre-diabetes stage and shows a link between 1-h plasma glucose and depressive symptomatology.
      • Results suggest that the metabolic syndrome may be a facilitative context to study the mechanisms that link depression and Type 2 diabetes.