Diabetic Medicine

Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 6

June 2014

Volume 31, Issue 6

Pages 637–762

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Letters
  2. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Letters
  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Letters
    1. Treatment

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Factors associated with statin treatment for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in people within 2 years following diagnosis of diabetes in Scotland, 2006–2008 (pages 640–646)

      N. R. V. Jones, C. M. Fischbacher, B. Guthrie, G. Leese, R. S. Lindsay, J. A. McKnight, D. Pearson, S. Philip, N. Sattar, S. H. Wild and on behalf of the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12409

      What's new?

      • This article reports the first use of Scottish Care Information – Diabetes Collaboration project data to examine which factors are associated with statin prescription in people during the first 2 years after diagnosis with diabetes in Scotland.
      • The results suggest that guidelines for the universal use of statins among people with diabetes were not being followed during the study period and that, as a result, opportunities to reduce cardiovascular disease risk were missed.
      • Decision support systems that prompt clinicians of risk reduction strategies could improve adherence to guidelines.
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Does early intensive multifactorial therapy reduce modelled cardiovascular risk in individuals with screen-detected diabetes? Results from the ADDITION-Europe cluster randomized trial (pages 647–656)

      J. A. Black, S. J. Sharp, N. J. Wareham, A. Sandbæk, G. E. H. M. Rutten, T. Lauritzen, K. Khunti, M. J. Davies, K. Borch-Johnsen, S. J. Griffin and R. K. Simmons

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12410

      What's new?

      • Little is known about intensive treatment of Type 2 diabetes early in the disease trajectory.
      • In ADDITION-Europe, a cluster-randomized trial of multifactorial treatment vs. routine care among individuals with screen-detected diabetes, there was a decline in 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk in both trial groups in the 5 years following diagnosis.
      • Compared with routine care, modest increases in intensity of treatment were associated with a small but significantly lower modelled cardiovascular disease risk value at 5 years.
      • Practitioners should be encouraged to treat multiple risk factors intensively from diagnosis to reduce the cardiovascular burden of Type 2 diabetes.
    3. Epidemiology

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Does higher quality of primary healthcare reduce hospital admissions for diabetes complications? A national observational study (pages 657–665)

      A. Calderón-Larrañaga, M. Soljak, E. Cecil, J. Valabhji, D. Bell, A. Prados Torres and A. Majeed

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12413

      What's new?

      • Measures of the incidence of diabetes complications are needed to improve the quality of diabetes care, and emergency hospital admission data are being used for this purpose by national health agencies.
      • Modifiable risk and healthcare factors associated with these complications indicate how they may be reduced.
      • In the population in England, better scheduled access to primary healthcare and better glycaemic control were associated with lower emergency hospital admission rates for diabetes among patients with acute and chronic complications, admissions without complications, and hypoglycaemia.
      • A global measure of adverse diabetes outcomes resulting in hospital admission should be developed.
    4. Epidemiology of childhood Type 1 diabetes in Taiwan, 2003 to 2008 (pages 666–673)

      C.-L. Lu, H.-N. Shen, H.-F. Chen and C.-Y. Li

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12407

      What's new?

      • The incidence of childhood (<15 years) Type 1 diabetes was stable between 2003 and 2008 in Taiwan, with a mean annual incidence rate of 5.3 per 100 000 children.
      • Female gender and older age were significant predictors for the incidence of Type 1 diabetes.
      • Although the rate of admission for Type 1 diabetes decreased by 60% over the study period, ketoacidosis still accounted for 24.6% of all admissions of Type 1 diabetes in 2007–2008 and remained the major complication of diabetes leading to admission in the first year after the onset of Type 1 diabetes.
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Incidence of Type 2 diabetes among occupational classes in Sweden: a 35-year follow-up cohort study in middle-aged men (pages 674–680)

      C. Hedén Stahl, M. Novak, P.-O. Hansson, G. Lappas, L. Wilhelmsen and A. Rosengren

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12405

      What's new?

      • Studies with a follow-up of 15 years have shown that Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects people with a lower socio-economic status.
      • With the world's aging population, it is important to determine if risk factors persist into older age groups.
      • In contrast to many other studies, we adjusted the analysis, not only for conventional risk factors, but also for psychological stress and competing risk of death.
      • The present study shows that low occupational class at mid-life remains an independent predictor for Type 2 diabetes after a 35-year follow-up.
    6. Pathophysiology

      Antibodies to islet cell autoantigens, rotaviruses and/or enteroviruses in cord blood and healthy mothers in relation to the 2010–2011 winter viral seasons in Israel: a pilot study (pages 681–685)

      L. M. Shulman, C. S. Hampe, A. Ben-Haroush, Y. Perepliotchikov, F. Vaziri-Sani, S. Israel, K. Miller, H. Bin, B. Kaplan and Z. Laron

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12404

      What's new?

      • It has been hypothesized that viral infections initiate islet cell autoimmunity.
      • Previous research suggests an association of viral infection in utero and islet autoimmunity.
      • We found a significant correlation between glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies and anti-rotavirus in healthy mothers at delivery and in cord blood.
      • The presence of antibodies in cord blood with antibody-negative mothers suggests an independent fetal immune response.
      • Our findings support the hypothesis that viral infections during pregnancy damage fetal islet cells, triggering islet autoimmunity.
    7. Plateau of adiposity in Australian children diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes: a 20-year study (pages 686–690)

      S. T. Islam, A. Abraham, K. C. Donaghue, A. K. Chan, M. Lloyd, S. Srinivasan and M. E. Craig

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12402

      What's new?

      • In contrast to other studies examining the accelerator hypothesis, the present 20-year study of 1975 children with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes shows evidence of a plateau having been reached in adiposity since 1995.
      • While the incidence of Type 1 diabetes continues to rise, these findings indicate that the accelerator hypothesis alone can no longer account for the development of Type 1 diabetes in our study population.
      • Nevertheless, rates of overweight and obesity in children with Type 1 diabetes remain alarmingly high compared with the general population, emphasizing that intervention studies aimed at reducing childhood obesity and insulin resistance are essential.
    8. Complications

      Association of fasting glucose with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in older adults without Type 2 diabetes (pages 691–698)

      R. C. Sims, L. I. Katzel, D. M. Lefkowitz, E. L. Siegel, W. F. Rosenberger, Z. Manukyan, K. E. Whitfield and S. R. Waldstein

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12385

      What's new?

      • The present study finds that minimally elevated fasting glucose levels may enhance the progression of subclinical cerebrovascular disease in older adults without Type 2 diabetes.
      • Education may play a role in buffering the effects of elevated glucose levels on the development of subclinical cerebrovascular disease.
      • Glucose levels should be monitored carefully by older adults without Type 2 diabetes because of the documented impact of subclinical hyperglycaemia on brain outcomes.
    9. Erectile dysfunction is a strong predictor of poor quality of life in men with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (pages 699–706)

      L. S. Malavige, S. D. Jayaratne, S. T. Kathriarachchi, S. Sivayogan, P. Ranasinghe and J. C. Levy

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12412

      What's new?

      • Previous studies that assessed erectile dysfunction-related quality of life among men with diabetes have not considered the concomitant presence of premature ejaculation and reduced libido.
      • We assessed erectile dysfunction using the five-item International Index of Erectile Function. Quality of life was assessed using the Sri Lankan version of the 36-item short form health survey questionnaire and disease-specific, Psychological Impact of the Erectile Dysfunction scale.
      • Erectile dysfunction was a strong predictor of poor quality of life in both generic and disease-specific quality-of-life measures.
      • Premature ejaculation and reduced libido also predicts poor quality of life in some of the scales.
    10. Impact of underlying diabetes and presence of lung cavities on treatment outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pages 707–713)

      A. Nakamura, E. Hagiwara, J. Hamai, M. Taguri and Y. Terauchi

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12414

      What's new?

      • The study found that presence of lung cavities was strongly correlated with diabetes status in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
      • The presence of lung cavities was found to be a more important determinant of treatment outcomes than that of diabetes per se in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
    11. Genetics

      Predicting cognitive ability in ageing cohorts using Type 2 diabetes genetic risk (pages 714–720)

      M. Luciano, R. Mõttus, S. E. Harris, G. Davies, A. Payton, W. E. R. Ollier, M. A. Horan, J. M. Starr, D. J. Porteous, N. Pendleton and I. J. Deary

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12389

      What's new?

      • The present study investigates whether the relationship between Type 2 diabetes mellitus and lower cognitive ability is attributable to genes predisposing to diabetes.
      • Genes predisposing to diabetes (identified from the largest genome-wide association study of Type 2 diabetes to date) were not associated with lower cognitive abilities in older age.
      • This suggests that any genetic basis for the association between diabetes and worsened cognition is attributable to those genes that are important for maintaining cognitive ability.
      • Alternatively, environmental factors that influence diabetes risk and poorer cognition could explain this association.
    12. Screening of diabetes of youth for hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 mutations: clinical phenotype of HNF1β-related maturity-onset diabetes of the young and HNF1α-related maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Japanese (pages 721–727)

      Y. Horikawa, M. Enya, N. Fushimi, Y. Fushimi and J. Takeda

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12416

      What's new?

      • The Japanese patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1)α-related maturity-onset diabetes of the young (HNF1α-MODY) in the present study all had a diabetes onset age of < 25 years, whereas the onset age of HNF1α-MODY is > 25 years in 40% of European/American patients.
      • Fasting plasma glucose levels at onset and the age of onset of HNF1β-related maturity-onset diabetes of the young (HNF1β-MODY) were considerably higher and older, respectively, than those of HNF1α-MODY in our Japanese study population.
      • HNF1β-MODY generally presents as β-cell dysfunction in Japanese, unlike in European/American in whom it presents as hyperinsulinaemia, partly because of the intrinsically lower capacity for insulin secretion in Japanese.
    13. Metabolism

      Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations but not higher blood pressure in obese men (pages 728–732)

      C. L. Asferg, U. B. Andersen, A. Linneberg, J. P. Goetze and J. L. Jeppesen

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12411

      What's new?

      • This study shows that plasma copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is higher in obese men compared with normal weight men, and is associated with an abnormal glucose and insulin metabolism, but not higher blood pressure, in obese men, independent of body composition.
      • The results indicate that the arginine vasopressin system could play a role in the pathogenesis of glucose intolerance and Type 2 diabetes in obese men.
    14. Educational and Psychological Aspects

      Use of clinical targets in diabetes patient education: qualitative analysis of the expectations and impact of a structured self-management programme in Type 1 diabetes (pages 733–738)

      R. Snow, J. Sandall and C. Humphrey

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12401

      What's new?

      • The present study is an entirely service-user-led qualitative study into structured patient education, a field dominated to date by medical perspectives and mainly quantitative evaluation.
      • The study explores the impact of the DAFNE programme on participants' life stories, rather than on their biomedical outcomes or adherence to regimens.
      • A fresh perspective on post-education HbA1c results is offered, posing a challenge to the orthodoxy of target-setting and achievable goals for people with Type 1 diabetes.
    15. Impact of baseline patient characteristics on interventions to reduce diabetes distress: the role of personal conscientiousness and diabetes self-efficacy (pages 739–746)

      L. Fisher, D. Hessler, U. Masharani and L. Strycker

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12403

      What's new?

      • The traits and beliefs that people with diabetes bring with them to clinical interventions influence the outcomes of interventions, even those previously shown to be efficacious.
      • Conscientiousness, a personal trait, and diabetes self-efficacy, a set of beliefs and expectations about management, are independent predictors of the success of interventions to improve management and reduce distress.
    16. Symptom burden and its association with change in glucose metabolism status over a 7-year period: the Hoorn Study (pages 747–753)

      R. van der Pols-Vijlbrief, J. M. Dekker, C. D. Stehouwer, M. R. de Boer, G. Nijpels, F. J. Snoek and M. C. Adriaanse

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12406

      What's new?

      • This is the first study investigating diabetes-related symptom burden among older people and its associations with a change in glucose metabolism status over a 7-year period.
      • The results indicate that symptom burden increases gradually over time among the participants with impaired glucose and those with normal glucose status, but not among patients with Type 2 diabetes.
      • Prospective studies are needed in larger populations, including data on comorbidities and information about diabetes treatment, given the potential of treatment to reduce diabetes complications and subsequent symptom burden


    17. Association between health-related quality of life and impaired glucose metabolism in Iran: the Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study (pages 754–758)

      A. Ghorbani, A. Ziaee, N. Esmailzadehha and H. Javadi

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12415

      What's new?

      • This study is one of the few studies that investigate the association between glucose metabolism status and quality of life in a population-based design using an oral glucose tolerance test.
      • It is unclear whether quality of life is diminished at or before the onset of diabetes, among those with pre-diabetes. In the present study we examine health-related quality of life among people with diabetes, people with pre-diabetes and people with normal glucose metabolism.
  4. Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Letters