Diabetic Medicine

Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 8

August 2014

Volume 31, Issue 8

Pages 885–1019

  1. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    3. Systematic Review or Meta-analysis
    4. Research Articles
    5. Letter
  2. Systematic Review or Meta-analysis

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    3. Systematic Review or Meta-analysis
    4. Research Articles
    5. Letter
    1. Diabetes in people with an intellectual disability: a systematic review of prevalence, incidence and impact (pages 897–904)

      K. McVilly, J. McGillivray, A. Curtis, J. Lehmann, L. Morrish and J. Speight

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12494

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    3. Systematic Review or Meta-analysis
    4. Research Articles
    5. Letter
    1. Epidemiology

      Association of physical activity with glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk profile in 65 666 people with Type 2 diabetes from Germany and Austria (pages 905–912)

      G. Hermann, A. Herbst, M. Schütt, H.-P. Kempe, D. Krakow, M. Müller-Korbsch, R. W. Holl and forthe Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV)-initiative and the BMBF Competence Network Diabetes Mellitus

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12438

      What's new?

      • Physically active people with Type 2 diabetes have lower cardiovascular risk.
      • Stratification of the study population by age showed that older subjects had better glycaemic control and a better lipid profile and that younger subject had lower hypertension rates.
      • Older people (60–80 years) with Type 2 diabetes benefit even more than younger people (20–59 years) from physical activity.
      • The study underlines the importance of lifestyle interventions in combination with pharmacotherapy.
      • The results of this large routine care study confirm findings from smaller intervention trials.
    2. Incidence and precipitants of hospitalization for pancreatitis in people with diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study (pages 913–919)

      T. M. E. Davis, J. Drinkwater and W. A. Davis

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12448

      What's new?

      • Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that diabetes increases the risk of acute pancreatitis and that diabetes-specific factors, such as blood glucose-lowering treatment and complications, may play a role.
      • In this community-based longitudinal observational case–control study, there was a 73% increased risk of hospitalization for a first episode of acute pancreatitis among the participants with diabetes.
      • Review of the case notes of the participants with diabetes revealed that conventional causes of pancreatitis, including cholelithiasis and excessive alcohol consumption, were present, and that there was no evidence of diabetes-specific risk factors.
    3. Cardiovascular risk profiles in relation to newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes diagnosed by either glucose or HbA1c criteria in Chinese adults in Qingdao, China (pages 920–926)

      L. Y. Qie, J. P. Sun, F. Ning, Z. C. Pang, W. G. Gao, J. Ren, H. R. Nan, L. Zhang, Q. Qiao and for the Qingdao Diabetes Survey Group in 2006 and 2009

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12498

      What's new?

      • Cardiovascular risk profiles in relation to different diabetes diagnostic criteria in terms of glucose or HbA1c tests were investigated in a Chinese adult population randomly recruited. The study shows that the cardiovascular risk profiles of the screening-diagnosed Type 2 diabetes by the glucose criterion alone differ from that by the HbA1c criterion alone. This may have certain clinical implications on diabetes management and research.
    4. Aging is associated with increased HbA1c levels, independently of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and also with decreased HbA1c diagnostic specificity (pages 927–935)

      N. Dubowitz, W. Xue, Q. Long, J. G. Ownby, D. E. Olson, D. Barb, M. K. Rhee, A. V. Mohan, P. I. Watson-Williams, S. L. Jackson, A. M. Tomolo, T. M. Johnson II and L. S. Phillips

      Version of Record online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12459

      What's new?

      • Measures of HbA1c are used for screening and management, but HbA1c levels rise with increasing age.
      • Higher HbA1c levels with increasing age cannot be attributed to unrecognized diabetes or prediabetes, postprandial hyperglycaemia or insulin resistance.
      • Differences in HbA1c levels with age are substantial: levels are 3.82 mmol/mol (0.35%) greater for an 80-year-old than for a 30-year-old individual, with the same glucose levels.
      • The specificity of HbA1c-based criteria for prediabetes decreases with increasing age.
      • Screening with HbA1c will tend to overdiagnose diabetes and prediabetes in older patients.
      • Guiding management based only on HbA1c levels might increase hypoglycaemia in older patients.
      • Practitioners should monitor glucose as well as HbA1c levels.
    5. Pathophysiology

      Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (pages 936–940)

      K. J. Hare, L. Bonde, J. A. Svare, H. S. Randeva, M. Asmar, S. Larsen, T. Vilsbøll and F. K. Knop

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12436

      What's new?

      • The mechanisms responsible for the severe insulin resistance associated with gestational diabetes mellitus are poorly understood.
      • We investigated levels of the novel adipokine chemerin (which has been suggested to constitute an insulin-sensitizing factor) in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes during the third trimester, and in the post-partum state when normal glucose homeostasis had been re-established.
      • We show that normal pregnancy is associated with increased circulating chemerin levels that decrease post partum, whereas gestational diabetes seems to be characterized by reduced chemerin levels that do not change with normalization of glucose tolerance following delivery.
      • Our findings may help to explain the severe insulin resistance observed in gestational diabetes and the high risk of Type 2 diabetes associated with it.
    6. Similar weight-adjusted insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in short-duration late autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA) and Type 2 diabetes: Action LADA 8 (pages 941–945)

      C. B. Juhl, U. Bradley, J. J. Holst, R. D. Leslie, K. B. Yderstraede, S. Hunter and Action LADA Consortium

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12434

      What's new?

      • When adjusted for BMI, people with short-duration late autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA) and Type 2 diabetes have similar insulin sensitivity, as assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique.
      • After a mixed meal, people with LADA and Type 2 diabetes have a similar incretin response and gastric emptying rate.
      • Insulin secretory pattern does not differ between people with LADA and people with Type 2 diabetes, as assessed by high frequency blood samples at baseline and during glucose entrainment.
      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Corrigendum

      Vol. 31, Issue 11, 1477, Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2014

    7. Complications

      The excess mortality related to cardiovascular diseases and cancer among adults pharmacologically treated for diabetes—the 2001–2006 ENTRED cohort (pages 946–953)

      I. Romon, G. Rey, L. Mandereau-Bruno, A. Weill, E. Jougla, E. Eschwège, D. Simon, C. Druet and A. Fagot-Campagna

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12435

      What's new?

      • In this first mortality study of a French 5-year cohort of adults pharmacologically treated for diabetes, the 45% excess mortality related to diabetes is mostly attributable to cardiovascular complications and, to a lesser extent, renal failure. While the cardiovascular risk profile of people with diabetes has improved, further prevention is required.
      • This study raises questions about the relationship between diabetes and cancer and highlights the need for screening for cancer in people with diabetes.
      • Diabetes is reported only in 35% of the death certificates of adults pharmacologically treated for diabetes and in 47% of those mentioning diabetes complications.
    8. Predicting mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus after major complications: a study using Swedish National Diabetes Register data (pages 954–962)

      P. J. Kelly, P. M. Clarke, A. J. Hayes, U.-G. Gerdtham, J. Cederholm, P. Nilsson, B. Eliasson and S. Gudbjornsdottir

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12468

      What's new?

      • The study is the largest comprehensive dataset on the survival of people with Type 2 diabetes after the first major complication.
      • It examines the role of clinical risk factors in predicting mortality.
      • Classic risk factors such as high BMI, systolic blood pressure and HbA1c were not associated with a higher mortality risk.
    9. Care Delivery

      Prediction of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women from the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity (UPBEAT) pilot trial (pages 963–970)

      R. A. Maitland, P. T. Seed, A. L. Briley, M. Homsy, S. Thomas, D. Pasupathy, S. C. Robson, S. M. Nelson, N. Sattar, L. Poston and on behalf of the UPBEAT trial consortium

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12482

      What's new?

      • Current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommendations have low sensitivity in identifying gestational diabetes. In spite of being at significantly greater risk, a minority of obese women develop gestational diabetes.
      • We examined biomarkers implicated in insulin resistance and showed that adiponectin, but not other variables measured, can meaningfully enhance gestational diabetes prediction over and above clinical measures in obese women. This finding extends previous work and suggests that future larger studies are needed to develop and validate risk scores for gestational diabetes and that adiponectin may feature in these.
    10. Use of hospital admissions data to quantify the burden of emergency admissions in people with diabetes mellitus (pages 971–975)

      D. C. Gibbons, M. A. Soljak, C. Millett, J. Valabhji and A. Majeed

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12444

      What's new?

      • Identification of a major and avoidable source of bias for studies that utilize hospital admissions data as an outcome measure.
    11. Educational and Psychological Issues

      Effect of a participant-driven health education programme in primary care for people with hyperglycaemia detected by screening: 3-year results from the Ready to Act randomized controlled trial (nested within the ADDITION-Denmark study) (pages 976–986)

      H. T. Maindal, A. H. Carlsen, T. Lauritzen, A. Sandbaek and R. K. Simmons

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12440

      What's new?

      • Previous attempts to translate diabetes prevention and cardiovascular risk reduction programmes developed in trials into the real-world setting have had limited success.
      • We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a novel, theory-based health education programme to reduce cardiovascular risk among individuals with hyperglycaemia detected by screening in Danish primary care.
      • The 12-week intervention was not associated with improvements in most clinical, behavioural and patient-reported outcomes after 3 years' follow-up. Individuals with pre-diabetic hyperglycaemia benefitted to a larger degree than those with diagnosed diabetes.
      • The development of effective individual-based real-world prevention strategies is needed, alongside consideration of population-based interventions, to change behavioural norms.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effectiveness of a group diabetes education programme in under-served communities in South Africa: a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (pages 987–993)

      R. J. Mash, H. Rhode, M. Zwarenstein, S. Rollnick, C. Lombard, K. Steyn and N. Levitt

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12475

      What's new?

      • The study adds to the scarce literature on diabetes education in Africa in the face of a growing public health problem in this continent.
      • The study demonstrates a statistically and clinically significant reduction in participants' mean blood pressure 1 year after the educational intervention.
      • The study adds to the small amount of literature on group motivational interviewing type interventions for diabetes.
      • The study adds to the small amount of literature on the use of lower-/mid-level health workers for diabetes education.
    13. Differential association of insulin resistance with cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression (pages 994–1000)

      A. W. Austin, J. L. Gordon, K. L. Lavoie, A. Arsenault, K. Dasgupta and S. L. Bacon

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12465

      What's new?

      • This is the first study to examine the associations of depressive symptoms (cognitive and somatic) with insulin resistance.
      • Somatic symptoms appear to be more strongly associated with insulin resistance than do cognitive symptoms.
      • Monitoring of somatic symptoms may be more appropriate than cognitive symptoms among depressed individuals with high insulin resistance.
    14. Genetics

      Sex-specific effects of naturally occurring variants in the dopamine receptor D2 locus on insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes susceptibility (pages 1001–1008)

      B. Guigas, J. E. de Leeuw van Weenen, N. van Leeuwen, A. M. Simonis-Bik, T. W. van Haeften, G. Nijpels, J. J. Houwing-Duistermaat, M. Beekman, J. Deelen, L. M. Havekes, B. W. J. H. Penninx, N. Vogelzangs, E. van ‘t Riet, A. Dehghan, A. Hofman, J. C. Witteman, A. G. Uitterlinden, N. Grarup, T. Jørgensen, D. R. Witte, T. Lauritzen, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, J. Hottenga, J. A. Romijn, M. Diamant, M. H. H. Kramer, R. J. Heine, G. Willemsen, J. M. Dekker, E. M. Eekhoff, H. Pijl, E. J. de Geus, P. E. Slagboom and L. M. ‘t Hart

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12464

      What's new?

      • The rs1800497 single nucleotide polymorphism at the DRD2/ANKK1 locus was associated with a significantly increased risk for Type 2 diabetes in women but not in men.
      • The rs6275 single nucleotide polymorphism in the DRD2 gene is associated with increased first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in women only.
      • Our data identify DRD2/ANKK1 as a potential sex-specific Type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene.
    15. Metabolism

      Reductions in resistance exercise-induced hyperglycaemic episodes are associated with circulating interleukin-6 in Type 1 diabetes (pages 1009–1013)

      D. Turner, S. Luzio, L. P. Kilduff, B. J. Gray, G. Dunseath, S. C. Bain, M. D. Campbell, D. J. West and R. M. Bracken

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12462

      What's new?

      • Increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) in people without diabetes have been observed after resistance exercise, and recent work links exercise-induced alterations in IL-6 to glucose metabolism.
      • It is not known whether resistance exercise increases IL-6 production in Type 1 diabetes and the metabolic role of exercise in Type 1 diabetes is also unclear.
      • This unique study found that resistance exercise increased circulating IL-6 concentration, and that exercise-induced increases in IL-6 correlated with reductions in post-exercise hyperglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes, suggesting a role for IL-6 in improving post-resistance exercise glycaemic disturbances in Type 1 diabetes.
    16. Serum levels of fractalkine are associated with markers of insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (pages 1014–1017)

      T. Ebert, J. Hindricks, S. Kralisch, U. Lossner, B. Jessnitzer, J. Richter, M. Blüher, M. Stumvoll and M. Fasshauer

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/dme.12451

      What's new?

      • The adipokine fractalkine is not different between women with gestational diabetes and control subjects.
      • Fractalkine is independently associated with markers of insulin resistance in pregnancy.
      • Fractalkine is independently associated with the proinflammatory adipokine progranulin.
  4. Letter

    1. Top of page
    2. Editor's Selection: This Month's Highlighted Article
    3. Systematic Review or Meta-analysis
    4. Research Articles
    5. Letter