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The once-daily human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide impacts appetite and energy intake in patients with type 2 diabetes after short-term treatment


Correspondence to: Anne Flint, MSc, PhD, Novo Nordisk A/S, Vandtårnsvej 108-110, DK-2860 Søborg, Denmark.



The aim was to investigate effects of liraglutide on appetite and energy intake in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Eighteen subjects with type 2 diabetes were assigned to treatment with once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (increasing by weekly 0.6 mg increments) or placebo for 3 weeks. Appetite ratings were assessed using visual analogue scales during a 5-h meal test. Energy and macronutrient intake during the subsequent ad libitum lunch were also measured. After 3 weeks, mean postprandial and minimum hunger ratings were significantly lower with liraglutide 1.8 mg than placebo (p < 0.01), and the mean overall appetite score was significantly higher (p = 0.05), indicating reduced appetite. Liraglutide was associated with higher maximum fullness ratings (p = 0.001) and lower minimum ratings of prospective food consumption (p = 0.01). Mean estimated energy intake was 18% lower for liraglutide than placebo [estimated ratio 0.82 (95% CI 0.73;0.94); p = 0.004], but no significant differences in macronutrient distribution were noted. Findings suggest that reduced appetite and energy intake may contribute to liraglutide-induced weight loss.