Olanzapine increases hepatic glucose production through the activation of hypothalamic adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase
Article first published online: 11 JUL 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Volume 15, Issue 12, pages 1128–1135, December 2013
How to Cite
Ikegami, M., Ikeda, H., Ohashi, T., Ohsawa, M., Ishikawa, Y., Kai, M., Kamei, A. and Kamei, J. (2013), Olanzapine increases hepatic glucose production through the activation of hypothalamic adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 15: 1128–1135. doi: 10.1111/dom.12148
- Issue published online: 5 NOV 2013
- Article first published online: 11 JUL 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 19 JUN 2013 12:30PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 22 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Received: 5 JAN 2013
- MEXT-Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities
- Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology. Grant Number: 23792133
- energy regulation;
To investigate the mechanism of the metabolic disturbance induced by the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine, we examined whether adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus and hepatic glucose production are involved in the effect of olanzapine.
Male 6-week-old ICR mice were used. Blood glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase method. The mRNA levels of gluconeogenic or glycolytic enzymes were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AMPK expression was measured by Western blotting.
Systemic injection of olanzapine increased blood glucose levels in both unfasted and fasted mice. However, the increase in fasted mice was less than that in unfasted mice. Central administration of olanzapine also increased the blood glucose levels in unfasted mice, but not in fasted mice. In a pyruvate tolerance test, olanzapine significantly increased blood glucose levels. In addition, olanzapine increased the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a gluconeogenic enzyme, in the liver. Furthermore, olanzapine increased phosphorylated AMPK in the hypothalamus of unfasted mice, and olanzapine-induced hyperglycaemia was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Central administration of the AMPK activator AICAR significantly increased G6Pase mRNA levels in the liver and blood glucose levels. Moreover, both olanzapine- and AICAR-induced hyperglycaemia were attenuated by the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol, suggesting that olanzapine and AICAR induce hepatic glucose production through the sympathetic nervous system.
Our results indicate that olanzapine activates AMPK in the hypothalamus, which increases hepatic glucose production via the sympathetic nervous system.