A comparison of the effects of diets high in animal or plant protein on metabolic and cardiovascular markers in type 2 diabetes – a randomized clinical trial
High animal protein diets support body weight and glucose control but may induce insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) while plant protein based diets appear to be metabolically advantageous and reduce cardiovascular events. We therefore compared high animal versus plant protein diets differing in amino acid composition in people with T2DM.
Materials and methods
We compared isocaloric diets containing 30% of energy (E%) either as animal (AP) or plant (PP) protein, using newly developed plant protein enriched foods, both combined with 30 E% fat and 40 E% carbohydrates in 44 patients with T2DM over six weeks in a randomized parallel group study. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and cardiovascular parameters were determined.
Uric acid decreased in both groups but significantly more in AP than PP. There were no significant differences in other parameters although HbA1c, diastolic blood pressure and fasting NEFA improved significantly in PP but not in AP. Insulin sensitivity (M-value), C-reactive protein and fasting glucose improved significantly in AP but not PP. Total and LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups and urinary albumin excretion rate decreased from baseline in microalbuminuric subjects.
Isocaloric diets high in animal or plant protein allow similar improvements of metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM patients indicating that the differences in amino acid composition do not affect the metabolic responses to the interventions.
ClincialTrials.gov number, NCT02402985.