Post Test


Building Better Insulin Therapy to Improve Glycemic Control and Patient Adherence

Posttest

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE about early insulin replacement therapy?
    1. Early insulin came from the purification of equine pancreases.
    2. Common adverse effects included ketoacidosis, glycosuria, and abscesses.
    3. Limitations of early preparations were hypoglycemia and weight gain.
    4. From the beginning, physiologic insulin replacement was possible.
  2. Which of the following was the FIRST insulin analog to be developed?
    1. Aspart
    2. Detemir
    3. Glulisine
    4. Lispro
  3. Which of the following is an advantage of long-acting insulin analogs compared to neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin?
    1. Lower risks of hypoglycemic-unawareness
    2. Lower risks of nocturnal hypoglycemia
    3. Lower risks of severe hypoglycemia
    4. All of the above are advantages.
  4. Patients with type 2 diabetes who progress to insulin therapy usually do so by starting with which of the following?
    1. Basal insulin added to oral antidiabetic drugs
    2. Basal “plus” some bolus (mealtime) insulin ± oral antidiabetic drugs
    3. Multiple daily injections of insulin
    4. Premixed insulin added to oral diabetic drugs
  5. What is the recommended increase in insulin dose for patients receiving long-acting basal insulin analogs along with background oral antidiabetic drugs who have blood glucose levels above 180 mg/dL?
    1. 0.5 units every 3 days
    2. 1 unit every 3 days
    3. 2 units every 3 days
    4. 4 units every 3 days
  6. What is the expected decrease in HbA1c for each 0.1 U/kg/day increment in insulin dose?
    1. 0.25%
    2. 0.5%
    3. 0.75%
    4. 1.0%
  7. Which of the following statements is CORRECT about the results of the Oral Plus Apidra and LANTUS (OPAL) study?
    1. Adding prandial insulin to basal insulin therapy is most effective when prandial insulin is given before breakfast.
    2. Adding prandial insulin to basal insulin therapy is most effective when prandial insulin is given before the main meal.
    3. It does not matter which meal prandial insulin is administered before in patients not at goal on basal insulin therapy.
    4. Sequential addition of giving basal insulin plus a single prandial insulin injection is not effective in achieving glycemic goals.
  8. Which of the following is/are effective means of improving glycemic control in patients on basal insulin analogs?
    1. Addition of a DPP-4 inhibitor
    2. Addition of a short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist
    3. Addition of a long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist
    4. All of the above
  9. Which of the following statements is CORRECT about the available clinical trial data for pegylated insulin lispro?
    1. The most common adverse effects are influenza-like reactions and increases in serum -potassium.
    2. Pegylated insulin lispro appears to be associated with less nocturnal hypoglycemia and some weight loss, as compared with insulin glargine.
    3. Pegylated insulin lispro was associated with superior HbA1c reductions, as compared with -insulin detemir.
    4. All of the above are correct.
  10. Which of the following is CORRECT about the available clinical trial data for insulin degludec, as compared to insulin glargine?
    1. The day-to-day variability is two times less.
    2. It can be dosed once daily, but should be given at about the same time each day.
    3. Nocturnal hypoglycemia rates were 25% lower.
    4. All of the above are correct.

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