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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 1 Issue 3

November 2011

Volume 1, Issue 3

Pages i–i, 229–450

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.215

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Community assembly and diversification in Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes (pages 229–277)

      Nicolas Hubert, Emmanuel Paradis, Henrich Bruggemann and Serge Planes

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.19

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      Theories of species coexistence have played a central role in ecology and evolutionary studies of the origin and maintenance of biodiversity in highly diverse communities. The concept of niche and associated theories predict that competition for available ecological space leads to a ceiling in species richness that influences further diversification patterns. By contrast, the neutral theory supports that speciation is stochastic and diversity independent. We examined the phylogenetic community structure and diversification rates in three families and 14 sites within coral reef fish communities from the Indian and Pacific oceans.

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      Know when to run, know when to hide: can behavioral differences explain the divergent invasion success of two sympatric lizards? (pages 278–289)

      David G. Chapple, Sarah M. Simmonds and Bob B.M. Wong

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.22

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      Invasive species represent a select subset of organisms that have successfully transitioned through each stage of the introduction process (transportation, establishment, and spread). Although there is a growing realization that behavior plays a critical role in invasion success, few studies have focused on the initial stages of introduction. We examined whether differences in the grouping tendencies and exploratory behavior of two sympatric lizard species could contribute to their divergent invasion success.

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      Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs (pages 290–305)

      Kathrin Patsias and Helge Bruelheide

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.23

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      Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability.

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      Do mycorrhizal network benefits to survival and growth of interior Douglas-fir seedlings increase with soil moisture stress? (pages 306–316)

      Marcus A. Bingham and Suzanne W. Simard

      Version of Record online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.24

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      Facilitation of tree establishment by ectomycorrhizal (EM) networks (MNs) may become increasingly important as drought stress increases with climate change in some forested regions of North America. The objective of this study was to determine (1) whether temperature, CO2 concentration ([CO2]), soil moisture, and MNs interact to affect plant establishment success, such that MNs facilitate establishment when plants are the most water stressed, and (2) whether transfer of C and water between plants through MNs plays a role in this.

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      Conspecific brood parasitism in the tropics: an experimental investigation of host responses in common moorhens and American purple gallinules (pages 317–329)

      Susan B. McRae

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.26

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      Species occupying a broad latitudinal range may show greater phenotypic plasticity in behavior than species with smaller ranges or more specific habitat requirements. This study investigates for the first time the occurrence of conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) in sympatric tropical populations of the common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus pauxilla Bangs) and the American purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica L.).

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      Phylogeography of the Mekong mud snake (Enhydris subtaeniata): the biogeographic importance of dynamic river drainages and fluctuating sea levels for semiaquatic taxa in Indochina (pages 330–342)

      Vimoksalehi Lukoschek, Jennifer L. Osterhage, Daryl R. Karns, John C. Murphy and Harold K. Voris

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.29

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      During the Cenozoic, Southeast Asia was profoundly affected by plate tectonic events, dynamic river systems, fluctuating sea levels, shifting coastlines, and climatic variation, which have influenced the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of the Southeast Asian flora and fauna. We examined the role of these paleogeographic factors on shaping phylogeographic patterns focusing on a species of semiaquatic snake, Enhydris subtaeniata (Serpentes: Homalopsidae) using sequence data from three mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b, ND4, and ATPase—2785 bp).

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      Postglacial recolonization of eastern Blacknose Dace, Rhinichthys atratulus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), through the gateway of New England (pages 343–358)

      Michelle L. Tipton, Sarah Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Phoebe Stonebraker and Barry Chernoff

      Version of Record online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.31

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      During the last ice age, much of North America was covered by glaciers and about 20,000 years ago, as glaciers retreated, the hydrologic landscape changed dramatically creating waterways for fish dispersal. The number of populations responsible for recolonization and the regions from which they recolonized are unknown for many freshwater fishes living in New England and southeastern Canada. The Blacknose Dace, Rhinichthys atratulus, is one of the freshwater fish species that recolonized this region. We hypothesize that the earliest deglaciated region, modern-day Connecticut, was recolonized by R. atratulus via a single founding event by a single population. In this paper, we test this hypothesis phylogenetically with regard to the major drainage basins within Connecticut.

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      Complex pattern of genetic structuring in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the River Foyle system in northwest Ireland: disentangling the evolutionary signal from population stochasticity (pages 359–372)

      Dennis Ensing, Paulo A. Prodöhl, Philip McGinnity, Patrick Boylan, Niall O’Maoiléidigh and Walter W. Crozier

      Version of Record online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.32

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      Little is known about the microevolutionary processes shaping within river population genetic structure of aquatic organisms characterized by high levels of homing and spawning site fidelity. Using a microsatellite panel, we observed complex and highly significant levels of intrariver population genetic substructure and Isolation-by-Distance, in the Atlantic salmon stock of a large river system.

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      Comprehensive study of mtDNA among Southwest Asian dogs contradicts independent domestication of wolf, but implies dog–wolf hybridization (pages 373–385)

      Arman Ardalan, Cornelya F. C. Kluetsch, Ai-bing Zhang, Metin Erdogan, Mathias Uhlén, Massoud Houshmand, Cafer Tepeli, Seyed Reza Miraei Ashtiani and Peter Savolainen

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.35

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      Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity indicate explicitly that dogs were domesticated, probably exclusively, in southern East Asia. However, Southwest Asia (SwAsia) has had poor representation and geographical coverage in these studies. Other studies based on archaeological and genome-wide SNP data have suggested an origin of dogs in SwAsia. Hence, it has been suspected that mtDNA evidence for this scenario may have remained undetected. In the first comprehensive investigation of genetic diversity among SwAsian dogs, we analyzed 582 bp of mtDNA for 345 indigenous dogs from across SwAsia, and compared with 1556 dogs across the Old World.

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      Trait-mediated diversification in nematode predator–prey systems (pages 386–391)

      Christian Mulder, Johannes Helder, Mariëtte T. W. Vervoort and J. Arie Vonk

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.36

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      Nematodes are presumably the most numerous Metazoans in terrestrial habitats. They are represented at all trophic levels and are known to respond to nutrient limitation, prey availability, and microbial resources. Predatory nematodes reside at the highest trophic level, and as such their feeding habits could have a major impact on soil food web functioning. Here, we investigate the effects of gender and developmental stage on the nematode body sizes in coarse and loamy soils.

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      Genetic and phenotypic differentiation between invasive and native Rhododendron (Ericaceae) taxa and the role of hybridization (pages 392–407)

      Alexandra Erfmeier, Marina Tsaliki, Christel A. Roß and Helge Bruelheide

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.38

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      Hybridization has been repeatedly put forward to explain the invasiveness of Rhododendron ponticum L. in the British Isles. The present study investigates the pattern of ecotypic differentiation and hybridization among native North American R. catawbiense and R. maximum, native R. ponticum from Georgia and Spain, and invasive R. ponticum from Ireland and aims to assess the contribution of hybridization for Rhododendron invasion in the British Isles. Six populations per taxon were analyzed with AFLP markers for genetic dissimilarity, subjected to germination and growth experiments, and tested for frost hardiness. We assessed variation in morphological and ecological characteristics to identify traits displaying evidence of hybridization, thus, promoting invasiveness.

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      Conservation priorities of genetic diversity in domesticated metapopulations: a study in taurine cattle breeds (pages 408–420)

      Ivica Medugorac, Claudia E. Veit-Kensch, Jelena Ramljak, Muhamed Brka, Božidarka Marković, Srđan Stojanović, Hysen Bytyqi, Ljupche Kochoski, Kristaq Kume, Hans-Peter Grünenfelder, Jörn Bennewitz and Martin Förster

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.39

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      We estimated neutral diversity of 21 European cattle breeds with 105 microsatellites. Nine of them resembled unselected Balkan Buša strains with diffuse breeding barriers and the 12 others were strongly differentiated, isolated breeds. Because of the impact of neutral genetic diversity on long-term population adaptive capacity, we discuss the long-term outcome of different conservation priorities in a subdivided metapopulation of the investigated cattle breeds.

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      Stocks of carbon and nitrogen and partitioning between above- and belowground pools in the Brazilian coastal Atlantic Forest elevation range (pages 421–434)

      Simone A. Vieira, Luciana F. Alves, Paulo J. Duarte-Neto, Susian C. Martins, Larissa G. Veiga, Marcos A. Scaranello, Marisa C. Picollo, Plinio B. Camargo, Janaina B. do Carmo, Eráclito Sousa Neto, Flavio A. M. Santos, Carlos A. Joly and Luiz A. Martinelli

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.41

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      We estimated carbon and nitrogen stocks in aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) along an elevation range in forest sites located on the steep slopes of the Serra do Mar on the north coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast Brazil. In elevations of 100 m (lowland), 400 m (submontane), and 1000 m (montane) four 1-ha plots were established, and above- (live and dead) and belowground (live and dead) biomass were determined. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in each compartment were determined and used to convert biomass into carbon and nitrogen stocks.

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      Nocturnal water loss in mature subalpine Eucalyptus delegatensis tall open forests and adjacent E. pauciflora woodlands (pages 435–450)

      Thomas N. Buckley, Tarryn L. Turnbull, Sebastian Pfautsch and Mark A. Adams

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.44

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      We measured sap flux (S) and environmental variables in four monospecific stands of alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis R. Baker, AA) and snowgum (E. pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng., SG) in Australia's Victorian Alps. Nocturnal S was 11.8 ± 0.8% of diel totals. We separated transpiration (E) and refilling components of S using a novel modeling approach based on refilling time constants.