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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 1 Issue 4

December 2011

Volume 1, Issue 4

Pages i–i, 451–625

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.201

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Three QTL in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. suppress reproduction of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (pages 451–458)

      Dieter Behrens, Qiang Huang, Cornelia Geßner, Peter Rosenkranz, Eva Frey, Barbara Locke, Robin F. A. Moritz and F. B. Kraus

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.17

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      Varroa destructor is a highly virulent ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee Apis mellifera and a major cause of colony losses for global apiculture. Typically, chemical treatment is essential to control the parasite population in the honey bee colony. Nevertheless a few honey bee populations survive mite infestation without any treatment. We used one such Varroa mite tolerant honey bee lineage from the island of Gotland, Sweden, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling reduced mite reproduction.

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      Differential timing of gene expression regulation between leptocephali of the two Anguilla eel species in the Sargasso Sea (pages 459–467)

      Louis Bernatchez, Jérôme St-Cyr, Eric Normandeau, Gregory E. Maes, Thomas D. Als, Svetlana Kalujnaia, Gordon Cramb, Martin Castonguay and Michael M. Hansen

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.27

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      The unique life-history characteristics of North Atlantic catadromous eels have long intrigued evolutionary biologists, especially with respect to mechanisms that could explain their persistence as two ecologically very similar but reproductively and geographically distinct species. Differential developmental schedules during young larval stages have commonly been hypothesized to represent such a key mechanism. We performed a comparative analysis of gene expression by means of microarray experiments with American and European eel leptocephali collected in the Sargasso Sea in order to test the alternative hypotheses of (1) differential timing of gene expression regulation during early development versus (2) species-specific differences in expression of particular genes.

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      Pristionchus uniformis, should I stay or should I go? Recent host range expansion in a European nematode (pages 468–478)

      Isabella D’Anna and Ralf J. Sommer

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.28

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      Pristionchus pacificus has a well-known ecological association with scarab beetles. Generally, Pristionchus nematodes have a necromenic association with their beetle hosts. Only one Pristionchus species is known to frequently associate with a non-scarab beetle. Pristionchus uniformis has been isolated from the chrysomelid Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado potato beetle, in Europe and North America, but is also found on scarab beetles. Here, we characterized a collection of 81 P. uniformis isolates from North America and Europe and from both scarab beetles and L. decemlineata. We used population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial gene nd2 to reconstruct the genetic history of P. uniformis and its beetle association.

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      Population-specific demography and invasion potential in medfly (pages 479–488)

      Alexandros D. Diamantidis, James R. Carey, Christos T. Nakas and Nikos T. Papadopoulos

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.33

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      Biological invasions are constantly gaining recognition as a significant component of global change. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) constitutes an ideal model species for the study of biological invasions due to its (1) almost cosmopolitan geographic distribution, (2) huge economic importance, and (3) well-documented invasion history. Under a common garden experimental set up, we tested the hypothesis that medfly populations obtained from six global regions [Africa (Kenya), Pacific (Hawaii), Central America (Guatemala), South America (Brazil), Extra–Mediterranean (Portugal), and Mediterranean (Greece)] have diverged in important immature life-history traits such as preadult survival and developmental times. We also tested the hypothesis that medfly populations from the above regions exhibit different population growth rates.

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      Parallel changes in the taxonomical structure of bacterial communities exposed to a similar environmental disturbance (pages 489–501)

      Karine Laplante and Nicolas Derome

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.37

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      Bacterial communities play a central role in ecosystems, by regulating biogeochemical fluxes. Therefore, understanding how multiple functional interactions between species face environmental perturbations is a major concern in conservation biology. Because bacteria can use several strategies, including horizontal gene transfers (HGT), to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions, potential decoupling between function and taxonomy makes the use of a given species as a general bioindicator problematic. The present work is a first step to characterize the impact of a recent polymetallic gradient over the taxonomical networks of five lacustrine bacterial communities.

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      Strong spatial genetic structure in five tropical Piper species: should the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis be revived for tropical shrubs? (pages 502–516)

      E. Lasso, J. W. Dalling and E. Bermingham

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.40

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      Fifty years ago, Baker and Fedorov proposed that the high species diversity of tropical forests could arise from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic drift leading to population differentiation and eventually to sympatric speciation. Decades of research, however have failed to support the Baker—Fedorov hypothesis (BFH), and it has now been discarded in favor of a paradigm where most trees are self-incompatible or strongly outcrossing, and where long-distance pollen dispersal prevents population drift. Here, we propose that several hyper-diverse genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, including Piper (>1,000 species), may provide an exception.

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      Body mass explains characteristic scales of habitat selection in terrestrial mammals (pages 517–528)

      Jason T. Fisher, Brad Anholt and John P. Volpe

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.45

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      Niche theory in its various forms is based on those environmental factors that permit species persistence, but less work has focused on defining the extent, or size, of a species' environment: the area that explains a species' presence at a point in space. We proposed that this habitat extent is identifiable from a characteristic scale of habitat selection, the spatial scale at which habitat best explains species' occurrence. We hypothesized that this scale is predicted by body size. We tested this hypothesis on 12 sympatric terrestrial mammal species in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

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      Range-wide genetic population structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina): a potentially important vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (pages 529–545)

      Yang Liu, Irene Keller and Gerald Heckel

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.46

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      An understanding of the distribution and spatial structure of the natural vectors of zoonothic pathogens is of interest for effective disease control and prevention. Here, we investigate the range-wide population genetic structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina), a long-distance migratory duck and potential vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza. We collected several hundred samples from breeding and wintering grounds across Eurasia including some H5N1-positive individuals and generated partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multilocus microsatellite genotypes.

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      Experimental manipulation shows that the white wing patch in collared flycatchers is a male sexual ornament (pages 546–555)

      Maaike E. de Heij, Lars Gustafsson and Jon E. Brommer

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.48

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      Descriptive analysis suggests that a conspicuous white wing patch in dichromatic (black and white) pied and collared flycatchers is under sexual selection. Here, we use an experimental approach to test whether this trait is indeed the target of selection. We caught 100 collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis males soon after their arrival on the breeding site. We reduced (blackened) part of the white wing patch in half of these males and recorded their mating success and within and extra-pair offspring production.

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      High-throughput sequencing offers insight into mechanisms of resource partitioning in cryptic bat species (pages 556–570)

      Orly Razgour, Elizabeth L. Clare, Matt R. K. Zeale, Julia Hanmer, Ida Bærholm Schnell, Morten Rasmussen, Thomas P. Gilbert and Gareth Jones

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.49

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      Sympatric cryptic species, characterized by low morphological differentiation, pose a challenge to understanding the role of interspecific competition in structuring ecological communities. We used traditional (morphological) and novel molecular methods of diet analysis to study the diet of two cryptic bat species that are sympatric in southern England (Plecotus austriacus and P. auritus) (Fig. 1). Using Roche FLX 454 (Roche, Basel, CH) high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and uniquely tagged generic arthropod primers, we identified 142 prey Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) in the diet of the cryptic bats, 60% of which were assigned to a likely species or genus.

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      Ecological release in White Sands lizards (pages 571–578)

      S. Des Roches, J. M. Robertson, L. J. Harmon and E. B. Rosenblum

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.50

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      Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata).

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      Harbour porpoises respond to climate change (pages 579–585)

      Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Maria Iversen, Nynne Hjort Nielsen, Christina Lockyer, Harry Stern and Mads Hvid Ribergaard

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.51

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      The life histories, behaviors, and feeding patterns of marine mammals are tuned to environmental conditions and associated changes in marine production. One approach for gaining insight into the effects of climate change on marine mammals is to combine long-term monitoring data on population metrics, life history, physiology, or behavior with time series on environmental conditions. The harbour porpoise is a marine endotherm with a high ratio of body surface to body volume. The availability of large numbers of harvested porpoises for examination provides a unique opportunity to obtain information on body condition and in turn gain insight into marine ecosystem processes.

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      Terrestrial chemical cues help coral reef fish larvae locate settlement habitat surrounding islands (pages 586–595)

      Danielle L. Dixson, Geoffrey P. Jones, Philip L. Munday, Morgan S. Pratchett, Maya Srinivasan, Serge Planes and Simon R. Thorrold

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.53

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      Understanding the degree of connectivity between coastal and island landscapes and nearby coral reefs is vital to the integrated management of terrestrial and marine environments in the tropics. Coral reef fish are capable of navigating appropriate settlement habitats following their pelagic larval phase, but the mechanisms by which they do this are unclear. The importance of olfactory cues in settlement site selection has been demonstrated, and there is increasing evidence that chemical cues from terrestrial sources may be important for some species. Here, we test the olfactory preferences of eight island-associated coral reef fish recruits and one generalist species to discern the capacity for terrestrial cue recognition that may aid in settlement site selection.

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      “Cost” of virginity in wild Drosophila melanogaster females (pages 596–600)

      Therese Ann Markow

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.54

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      Laboratory studies have revealed a significant “cost of mating” to Drosophila melanogaster females in the form of reduced longevity. The effect is attributable to nonsperm components of the ejaculate. Female D. melanogaster are known to mate up to six times in nature, and given that they do not typically remate daily, it raises the question as to the extent to which the longevity of wild mated females is reduced. Here I addressed this question by comparing the longevity of wild virgin females, collected as they emerged from rotting fruit, to the longevity of randomly collected mature females at the same site.

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      Juvenile habitat partitioning and relative productivity in allochronically isolated sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) (pages 601–609)

      E.K. Fillatre Miller, I.R. Bradbury and D.D. Heath

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.55

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      Allochronic divergence, like spatial isolation, may contribute to population diversity and adaptation, however the challenges for tracking habitat utilization in shared environments are far greater. Adult Klukshu River (Yukon, Canada) sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, return as genetically distinct “early” and “late” runs. Early and late adult spawning populations (1999 and 2000) and their subsequent fry (sampled at 7 sites in 2000 and at 8 sites in 2001 throughout Klukshu Lake and River) were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian assignment was used to determine the spatial distribution of early versus late fry; although intermixed, the distribution of fry significantly differed in Klukshu Lake and in the Klukshu River in 2001, based on crosstab analyses.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion (pages 610–625)

      Lora B. Perkins, Elizabeth A. Leger and Robert S. Nowak

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.47

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      Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment.

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