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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 1

January 2012

Volume 2, Issue 1

Pages i–i, 1–271

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.214

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Signatures of natural selection among lineages and habitats in Oncorhynchus mykiss (pages 1–18)

      Morten T. Limborg, Scott M. Blankenship, Sewall F. Young, Fred M. Utter, Lisa W. Seeb, Mette H. H. Hansen and James E. Seeb

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.59

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      Recent advances in molecular interrogation techniques now allow unprecedented genomic inference about the role of adaptive genetic divergence in wild populations. We used high-throughput genotyping to screen a genome-wide panel of 276 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the economically and culturally important salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss. Samples included 805 individuals from 11 anadromous and resident populations from the northwestern United States and British Columbia, and represented two major lineages including paired populations of each life history within single drainages of each lineage.

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      Intense harvesting of eastern wolves facilitated hybridization with coyotes (pages 19–33)

      Linda Y. Rutledge, Bradley N. White, Jeffrey R. Row and Brent R. Patterson

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.61

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      Here, we demonstrate that culling of eastern wolves in Algonquin Provincial Park led to increased hybridization of eastern wolves with western coyotes. Although coyote mitochondrial DNA became introgressed into the Algonquin wolf population, introgression of nuclear DNA from coyotes appears to have been curtailed by legislation that extended wolf protection outside park boundaries in 2001. These results demonstrate that intense localized harvest of a seemingly abundant species can lead to unexpected hybridization events that encumber future conservation efforts.

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      Humid tropical rain forest has expanded into eucalypt forest and savanna over the last 50 years (pages 34–45)

      David Y. P. Tng, Brett P. Murphy, Ellen Weber, Gregor Sanders, Grant J. Williamson, Jeanette Kemp and David M. J. S. Bowman

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.70

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      Rain forest has expanded in the humid tropics of Far North Queensland, Australia, over the past 50 years. We examine the environmental causes of this expansion and project the impact of this expansion on adjacent vegetation types.

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      Macroevolutionary patterns of bumblebee body size: detecting the interplay between natural and sexual selection (pages 46–57)

      Raúl Cueva del Castillo and Daphne J. Fairbairn

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.65

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      Bumblebees offer the opportunity to analyze the evolution of body size differences between sexes. The workers, being sterile females are not subject to selection for reproductive function and thus provide a natural control for parsing the effects of selection on reproductive function (i.e. sexual and fecundity selection) from other natural selection. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we explored the allometric relationships among queens, males and workers in 70 species of bumblebees. The slope for males on workers was significantly steeper than that for queens on workers and the latter did not depart from isometry, providing further evidence of greater evolutionary divergence in male size than female size, and no evidence that reproductive selection has accelerated divergence of females.

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      Population decrease of Scirpophaga incertulas Walker (Lepidoptera Pyralidae) under climate warming (pages 58–64)

      Peijian Shi, Ling Zhong, Hardev S. Sandhu, Feng Ge, Xiaoming Xu and Wei Chen

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.69

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      Population density of Scirpophaga incertulas in Southern China descended with increase in the minimum annual temperature in the past 50 years. It implies that global warming may lead to the population decrease for some agricultural pests.

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      Ericoid mycorrhizal root fungi and their multicopper oxidases from a temperate forest shrub (pages 65–79)

      Nina Wurzburger, Brian P. Higgins and Ronald L. Hendrick

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.67

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      Rhododendron maximum is a model ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) understory shrub that influences the nutrient cycles of montane hardwood forests in the southern Appalachians. Our findings indicate that R. maximum roots associate with a diverse fungal community that is richer in organic than in mineral soil horizons and possesses a suite of multicopper oxidase genes. ERM fungi may utilize extracellular oxidative enzymes to release and acquire nutrients from their host's litter as a strategy for regulating nutrient cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

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      Sexual selection on song and cuticular hydrocarbons in two distinct populations of Drosophila montana (pages 80–94)

      Paris Veltsos, Claude Wicker-Thomas, Roger K. Butlin, Anneli Hoikkala and Michael G. Ritchie

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.75

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      Both courtship song and cuticular hydrocarbons influence courtship outcome in Drosophila montana, but sexual selection along cannot predict differences between populations.

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      Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows (pages 95–105)

      Roi Dor, Caren B. Cooper, Irby J. Lovette, Viviana Massoni, Flor Bulit, Marcela Liljesthrom and David W. Winkler

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.73

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      We investigated the circadian Clock gene, Clock, in Tachycineta swallow and found relatively low variation in this gene across Tachycineta species. This variation was not associated within population with clutch initiation date or incubation duration. However, there was a relationship between Clock allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons among populations.

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      Structural and functional response of methane-consuming microbial communities to different flooding regimes in riparian soils (pages 106–127)

      Paul L.E. Bodelier, Marie-Jose Bär-Gilissen, Marion Meima-Franke and Kees Hordijk

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.34

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      Climate change will lead to more extreme precipitation and associated increase of flooding events of soils. This can turn these soils from a sink into a source of atmospheric methane. The latter will depend on the balance of microbial methane production and oxidation. In the present study, the structural and functional response of methane oxidizing microbial communities was investigated in a riparian flooding gradient. Four sites differing in flooding frequency were sampled and soil-physico-chemistry as well as methane oxidizing activities, numbers and community composition were assessed. Next to this, the active community members were determined by stable isotope probing of lipids.

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      Sex-specific genetic variances in life-history and morphological traits of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (pages 128–138)

      Lára R. Hallsson and Mats Björklund

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.56

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      Knowledge of heritability and genetic correlations are of central importance in the study of adaptive trait evolution and genetic constraints. We use a paternal half-sib-full-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic architecture of three life-history and morphological traits in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Heritability was significant for all traits under observation and genetic correlations between traits (r A) were low. Interestingly, we found substantial sex-specific genetic effects and low genetic correlations between sexes (r MF) in traits that are only moderately (weight at emergence) to slightly (longevity) sexually dimorphic

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      Locus-specific view of flax domestication history (pages 139–152)

      Yong-Bi Fu, Axel Diederichsen and Robin G. Allaby

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.57

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      Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred.

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      Northern refugia and recent expansion in the North Sea: the case of the wrasse Symphodus melops (Linnaeus, 1758) (pages 153–164)

      Joana I. Robalo, Rita Castilho, Sara M. Francisco, Frederico Almada, Halvor Knutsen, Per E. Jorde, Ana M. Pereira and Vitor C. Almada

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.77

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      Comparative analyses based on both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers constitute a useful approach to unravel phylogeographic patterns and processes of species after this time period, to gain general knowledge of how climatic changes affects shifts in species distributions. In this manuscript we analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops, Labridae), a rocky shore species inhabiting North Sea waters and temperate northeastern Atlantic Ocean from Norway to Morocco including the Azores, using a fragment of the mitochondrial control region and the first intron of the nuclear S7 ribosomal protein gene.

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      Impact of historical founder effects and a recent bottleneck on MHC variability in Commander Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) (pages 165–180)

      Anna I. Ploshnitsa, Mikhail E. Goltsman, David W. Macdonald, Lorna J. Kennedy and Simone Sommer

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.42

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      Populations of Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) have been isolated on two of the Commander Islands (Bering and Mednyi) from the circumpolar distributed mainland population since the Pleistocene. In 1970–1980, an epizootic outbreak of mange caused a severe population decline on Mednyi Island. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a primary role in infectious disease resistance. The main objectives of our study were to compare contemporary variation of MHC class II in mainland and island Arctic foxes, and to document the effects of the isolation and the recent bottleneck on MHC polymorphism by analyzing samples from historical and contemporary Arctic foxes.

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      Phenotypic covariance structure and its divergence for acoustic mate attraction signals among four cricket species (pages 181–195)

      Susan M. Bertram, Lauren P. Fitzsimmons, Emily M. McAuley, Howard D. Rundle and Root Gorelick

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.76

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      The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) provides direct insight into the appropriateness of measured traits and whether trait covariances restrict the combinations of phenotypes available to selection. We quantified P for seven acoustic signalling traits thought to enhance mate attraction for populations of four cricket species. P was of full or almost full dimensionality in all four species, indicating that all traits conveyed information independent of other traits, and that phenotypic trait covariances do not constrain the combinations of signalling traits available to selection. Our study reveals the importance of jointly analyzing phenotypic traits.

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      Simulated climate change conditions unveil the toxic potential of the fungicide pyrimethanil on the midge Chironomus riparius: a multigeneration experiment (pages 196–210)

      Ruth Müller, Anne Seeland, Lucas S. Jagodzinski, Joao B. Diogo, Carsten Nowak and Jörg Oehlmann

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.71

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      Although it has been suggested that temperature increase may alter the toxic potential of environmental pollutants, few studies have investigated the potential risk of chemical stressors for wildlife under Global Climate Change (GCC) impact. We applied a bifactorial multigeneration study in order to test if GCC conditions alter the effects of low pesticide concentrations on life history and genetic diversity of the aquatic model organism Chironomus riparius.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Chloroplast genome sequence confirms distinctness of Australian and Asian wild rice (pages 211–217)

      Daniel L. E. Waters, Catherine J. Nock, Ryuji Ishikawa, Nicole Rice and Robert J. Henry

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.66

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      Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) is an AA genome Oryza species that was most likely domesticated from wild populations of O. rufipogon in Asia. O. rufipogon and O. meridionalis are the only AA genome species found within Australia and occur as widespread populations across northern Australia. The chloroplast genome sequence of O. rufipogon from Asia and Australia and > and O. australiensis (an Australian member of the genus very distant from O. sativa) was obtained by massively parallel sequencing and compared with the chloroplast genome sequence of domesticated O. sativa. The chloroplast sequences emphasize the genetic distinctness of the Australian populations and their potential as a source of novel rice germplasm. The Australian O. rufipogon may be a perennial form of O. meridionalis.

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      Life history traits variation in heterogeneous environment: The case of a freshwater snail resistance to pond drying (pages 218–226)

      Elodie Chapuis and Jean-Baptiste Ferdy

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.68

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      Ecologists and population geneticists have long suspected that the diversity of living organisms was connected to the structure of their environment. In heterogeneous environments, diversifying selection combined to restricted gene flow may indeed lead to locally adapted populations. The freshwater snail, Galba truncatula, is a good model to address this question because it is present in a heterogeneous environment composed of temporary and permanent waters. In order to test the selective importance of those environments, we proposed here to measure survival of lineages from both habitats during drought episodes.

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      Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths (pages 227–246)

      Matthew R.E. Symonds, Tamara L. Johnson and Mark A. Elgar

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.81

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      The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species.

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      Improbable but true: the invasive inbreeding ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus morigerus has generalist genotypes (pages 247–257)

      Hanne F. Andersen, Bjarte H. Jordal, Marius Kambestad and Lawrence R. Kirkendall

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.58

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      The wide distribution and dominance of invasive inbreeding species in many forest ecosystems seems paradoxical in face of their limited genetic variation. Successful establishment of invasive species in new areas is nevertheless facilitated by clonal reproduction: parthenogenesis, regular self-fertilization, and regular inbreeding. The success of clonal lineages in variable environments has been explained by two models, the frozen niche variation (FNV) model and the general-purpose genotype (GPG) model. We tested these models on a widely distributed forest pest that has been recently established in Costa Rica—the sibling-mating ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus morigerus.

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      Regulatory versus coding signatures of natural selection in a candidate gene involved in the adaptive divergence of whitefish species pairs (Coregonus spp.) (pages 258–271)

      Julie Jeukens and Louis Bernatchez

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.52

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      While gene expression divergence is known to be involved in adaptive phenotypic divergence and speciation, the relative importance of regulatory and structural evolution of genes is poorly understood. A recent next-generation sequencing experiment allowed identifying candidate genes potentially involved in the ongoing speciation of sympatric dwarf and normal lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), such as cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH1), which showed both significant expression and sequence divergence. The main goal of this study was to investigate into more details the signatures of natural selection in the regulatory and coding sequences of MDH1 in lake whitefish and test for parallelism of these signatures with other coregonine species.