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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 2

February 2012

Volume 2, Issue 2

Pages i–i, 273–485

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.216

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Little and large: body size and genetic clines in a New Zealand gecko (Woodworthia maculata) along a coastal transect (pages 273–285)

      Josephine Fitness, Rodney A. Hitchmough and Mary Morgan-Richards

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.64

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      A cline in adult body-size within a single species of New Zealand gecko reveals a doubling in weight over just 15 km. We found three mtDNA clades within the transect and clines at two genetic loci. Genetic and morphological clines were neither concordant nor coincident, from which one might infer that this is an old contact zone with independent introgression and exogenous size-selection.

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      Expression of nitrous oxide reductase from Pseudomonas stutzeri in transgenic tobacco roots using the root-specific rolD promoter from Agrobacterium rhizogenes (pages 286–297)

      Shen Wan, Amanda M. Johnson and Illimar Altosaar

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.74

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      The transgenic plants expressing N2OR from P. stutzeri showed specific N2O reduce activity. By incorporating this bacterial gene into genetically modified organism crops in this way, it may be possible to reduce the atmospheric concentration of N2O.

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      Role of recent and old riverine barriers in fine-scale population genetic structure of Geoffroy's tamarin (Saguinus geoffroyi) in the Panama Canal watershed (pages 298–309)

      Samuel L. Díaz-Muñoz

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.79

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      How does the timing of the appearance of barriers affect population structure? This study uses the Panama Canal watershed as a test of the effects of old and recent riverine barriers in creating population structure in Saguinus geoffroyi, a small cooperatively breeding Neotropical primate. Analysis of mtDNA sequences and microsatellite genotypes from three sampling localities across the Panama Canal and Chagres River provide evidence of population structure, with greater differentiation observed across the older Chagres.

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      Reef fish hybridization: lessons learnt from butterflyfishes (genus Chaetodon) (pages 310–328)

      Stefano R. Montanari, Lynne van Herwerden, Morgan S. Pratchett, Jean-Paul A. Hobbs and Anneli Fugedi

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.83

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      Butterflyfishes form a high number of hybrids. This study provides a rare test of terrestrially-derived hybridisation theory in the marine environment by examining hybridisation between Chaetodon trifasciatus and Chaetodon lunulatus at Christmas Island. Overlapping spatial and dietary ecologies, non-assortative mating and local rarity of both parent species appear to favour heterospecific breeding pair formation. Microsatellite loci and mtDNA confirmed the status of hybrids, and indicated a unidirectional maternal contribution and lack of introgression, suggesting limited, localised evolutionary consequences of hybridisation.

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      Population genomics of resource exploitation: insights from gene expression profiles of two Daphnia ecotypes fed alternate resources (pages 329–340)

      Jeffry L. Dudycha, Christopher S. Brandon and Kevin C. Deitz

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.30

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      Most consumers encounter resource variation at multiple scales, and respond through phenotypic plasticity in the short term or evolutionary divergence in the long term. To identify relevant candidate genes, we experimentally assayed genome-wide gene expression in pond and lake Daphnia ecotypes exposed to alternate resource environments. Fourteen genes were differentially regulated with respect to resources, including genes involved in gut processes, resource allocation, and activities with no obvious connection to resource exploitation. Our results demonstrate the value of matching the level of biological replication in genome-wide assays to the question, as it gave us insight into ecotype-level responses at ecological and evolutionary scales despite substantial variation within ecotypes.

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      Can balancing selection on MHC loci counteract genetic drift in small fragmented populations of black grouse? (pages 341–353)

      Tanja M. Strand, Gernot Segelbacher, María Quintela, Lingyun Xiao, Tomas Axelsson and Jacob Höglund

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.86

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      Genetic variation was analyzed in black grouse populations by combining three different markers: two neutral ones (microsatellites and SNPs) and one adaptive (MHC genes). To our knowledge this is the first study where these markers were tested in populations of different sizes and degree of isolation and this provided a unique opportunity to test the effects of genetic drift and balancing selection in fragmented populations.

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      A species assemblage approach to comparative phylogeography of birds in southern Australia (pages 354–369)

      Gaynor Dolman and Leo Joseph

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.87

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      In order to compare demographic histories of ten broadly co-distributed birds that are wholly or patchily discontinuous in semi-arid habitats between the continent's south-west and south-east mesic zones we applied coalescent-based hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (HABC) methods to estimate the number and timing of divergence events, and then applied coalescent-based full Bayesian models of divergence to suites of species shown to have simultaneously diverged. This novel approach to analysing mtDNA achieves a new analytical level for single-locus datasets, enabling a more thorough investigation of the history of biomes and their component species prior to investing in multi-locus data.

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      Climate change and the decline of a once common bird (pages 370–378)

      Christopher J. W. McClure, Brian W. Rolek, Kenneth McDonald and Geoffrey E. Hill

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.95

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      Climate change is predicted to negatively impact wildlife through a variety of mechanisms including retraction of range. We found that the range of the Rusty Blackbird, a rapidly declining species, retracted northward by 143 km since the 1960s, that the probability of local extinction was highest at southern the range margin and that the mean breeding latitude of the Rusty Blackbird was significant and positively correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation with a lag of six years. Because the annual distribution of the Rusty Blackbird is affected by annual weather patterns produced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, our results support the hypothesis that directional climate change over the past 40 years is contributing to the decline of the Rusty Blackbird.

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      Increased divergence but reduced variation on the Z chromosome relative to autosomes in Ficedula flycatchers: differential introgression or the faster-Z effect? (pages 379–396)

      Silje Hogner, Stein A. Sæther, Thomas Borge, Torbjørn Bruvik, Arild Johnsen and Glenn-Peter Sætre

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.92

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      We show that the four black-and-white Ficedula flycatcher species show greater genetic divergence on the Z chromosome than on the autosomes, and that the ratios of intraspecific polymorphism at Z-linked versus autosomal markers are below the neutral expectation of 75%. Using isolation with migration and population genetic analyses we provide tests of critical predictions from two hypotheses, the faster-Z hypothesis and differential introgression (reduced rates of introgression on the Z chromosome). Our analyses suggest that we can reject the differential introgression hypothesis, at least in the case of these flycatchers.

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      Evolution of reproductive morphology among recently diverged taxa in the Drosophila mojavensis species cluster (pages 397–408)

      Maxi Polihronakis Richmond, Sarah Johnson and Therese A. Markow

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.93

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      The current study investigates the mode of aedeagus shape evolution among four subspecies of the cactophilic fly, Drosophila mojavensis. Our results indicate that aedeagus shape is diagnostic; however, evolution of aedeagus shape is not the same for each subspecies.

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      Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil (pages 409–428)

      Rubens M. Santos, Ary T. Oliveira-Filho, Pedro V. Eisenlohr, Luciano P. Queiroz, Domingos B. O. S. Cardoso and Maria J. N. Rodal

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.91

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      Multivariate and geostatisctic analyses showed that the tree species composition of 187 seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in North-eastern and Central Brazil varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs areas determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora.

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      Evaluation of experimental genetic management in reintroduced bighorn sheep (pages 429–443)

      Zachary H. Olson, Donald G. Whittaker and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.97

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      We assess the genetic effects of an experiment in genetic management involving replicate populations of California bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana) in Oregon, USA, which previously experienced poor productivity and numerical declines. In the experiment two declining populations were supplemented with ewes from a more-genetically-diverse population of California bighorn sheep in Nevada. Using genetic analyses and demographic simulations, we demonstrate the success of genetic management by documenting interpopulation hybrids, identifying no evidence for outbreeding depression as a result of contact between the genetically distinct supplemented and resident populations, and by identifying increased population-level metrics of genetic diversity in post-supplementation populations compared with pre-supplementation levels.

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      Persistence of self-recruitment and patterns of larval connectivity in a marine protected area network (pages 444–452)

      Michael L. Berumen, Glenn R. Almany, Serge Planes, Geoffrey P. Jones, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo and Simon R. Thorrold

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.208

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      We used genetic parentage analysis to demonstrate that patterns of self-recruitment of two reef fishes (Amphiprion percula and Chaetodon vagabundus) in an MPA in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, were remarkably consistent over several years, suggesting that even small MPAs may be self-sustaining. However, dispersal from this reserve to other nodes in an MPA network was variable between species and through time, suggesting that optimization of reserve networks for connectivity will remain a challenging task.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Possible effects of global environmental changes on Antarctic benthos: a synthesis across five major taxa (pages 453–485)

      Jeroen Ingels, Ann Vanreusel, Angelika Brandt, Ana I. Catarino, Bruno David, Chantal De Ridder, Philippe Dubois, Andrew J. Gooday, Patrick Martin, Francesca Pasotti and Henri Robert

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.96

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      Southern Ocean ecosystems are very susceptible to the growing impact of global climate change and other anthropogenic influences. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand how Southern Ocean marine life will cope with expected future changes. Here, we provide a synthesis of the ability of five important Antarctic benthic taxa (Foraminifera, Nematoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Echinoidea) to cope with predicted major changes in the environment linked to climatic changes. Responses from individual to the taxon-specific community level to these drivers will vary with taxon with likely consequences for ecosystem functioning. Limitations in our current knowledge and understanding of climate change effects on the different levels are discussed.

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