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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 3

March 2012

Volume 2, Issue 3

Pages 1–679

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page 1)

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.239

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Alternative strategies of seed predator escape by early-germinating oaks in Asia and North America (pages 487–492)

      Xianfeng Yi, Yueqin Yang, Rachel Curtis, Andrew W. Bartlow, Salvatore J. Agosta and Michael A. Steele

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.209

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      “The pruned taproots (>6cm) of chestnut oak and white oak acorns containing the plumule successfully germinated and survived, and the pruned taproots (=12 cm) of oriental cork oak and Mongolian oak acorns without the plumule successfully regenerated along with the detached acorns, thus producing two seedlings. These two distinct regeneration morphologies in North America and Asia white oaks reflect alternative strategies for escaping acorn predation.”

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      Incorrect handling of calibration information in divergence time inference: an example from volcanic islands (pages 493–500)

      Beatriz Mello and Carlos G. Schrago

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.94

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      “We show that, by permitting probabilistic calibrations on volcanic islands, divergences are found to be significantly younger or older than the age of the island formation, thus yielding distinct ecological scenarios for the speciation process. The results highlight the importance of using calibration information correctly, as well as the possibility of incorporating volcanic island studies into a formal, biogeographical hypothesis-testing framework. We hereby declare that the authors have no conflict of interest.”

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      Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering bald eagles (pages 501–514)

      Chris J. Harvey, Pamela E. Moriarty and Eric P. Salathé Jr.

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.204

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      We modeled the bioenergetics of bald eagles overwintering near Puget Sound, USA under climate conditions from the 1970s and projected for the 2050s. Climate change did not substantially change bald eagle daily energy consumption. However, climate change will likely affect supply of eagles' main food source, salmon carcasses.

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      Altruism and the evolution of resource generalism and specialism (pages 515–524)

      Michael B. Bonsall and Alison E. Wright

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.206

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      Thresholds for the evolution of resource specialism determined by payoffs and costs of squabbling for resource. Coupled with ecological dynamics, these patterns affect the evolution of specialists.

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      Negative density-dependent dispersal in the American black bear (Ursus americanus) revealed by noninvasive sampling and genotyping (pages 525–537)

      Justin Roy, Glenn Yannic, Steeve D. Côté and Louis Bernatchez

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.207

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      We investigated population density effects on sex-specific dispersal behavior in the American black bear, Ursus americanus. Our results suggest a negative density-dependent dispersal pattern in the American black bear. As population density increased, females appeared to exhibit philopatry at smaller scales, and males reduced dispersal distances or male sub-adults delayed dispersal.

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      Dispersal limitation and the assembly of soil Actinobacteria communities in a long-term chronosequence (pages 538–549)

      Sarah D. Eisenlord, Donald R. Zak and Rima A. Upchurch

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.210

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      Disentangling the relative importance of present-day biogeochemical characteristics, climatic variation, and historical contingencies in shaping soil actinobacterial communities in a long term chronosequence. With 16S rRNA gene TRFLP profiles and phylogenetics community analysis, we have documented trends which indicate dispersal limitation may play a role in shaping soil actinobacterial communities.

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      Genetic signatures of a demographic collapse in a large-bodied forest dwelling primate (Mandrillus leucophaeus) (pages 550–561)

      Nelson Ting, Christos Astaras, Gail Hearn, Shaya Honarvar, Joel Corush, Andrew S. Burrell, Naomi Phillips, Bethan J. Morgan, Elizabeth L. Gadsby, Ryan Raaum and Christian Roos

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.98

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      The drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) is a cryptic and endangered primate that inhabits the rainforests of West Central Africa. We discovered a nearly 15-fold decline in drill female effective population size that is most marked during the Mid Holocene. We postulate the cause of the population collapse to be forest recession brought on by a warm and arid climate, conditions which may be analogous to projected changes in climate for some current tropical forested regions.

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      Concurrent habitat and life history influences on effective/census population size ratios in stream-dwelling trout (pages 562–573)

      Sebastian Belmar-Lucero, Jacquelyn L. A. Wood, Sherylyne Scott, Andrew B. Harbicht, Jeffrey A. Hutchings and Dylan J. Fraser

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.196

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      “How does habitat and life history affect the effective population size in relation to the census size of a population?”

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      Contemporary and historical evolutionary processes interact to shape patterns of within-lake phenotypic divergences in polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (pages 574–592)

      Dylan J. Weese, Moira M. Ferguson and Beren W. Robinson

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.72

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      Historical and contemporary evolutionary processes can both contribute to patterns of phenotypic variation among populations of a species. Here we combine population genetic and phenotypic analyses to understand how interactions between recent evolutionary history (colonization of postglacial lakes) and selection imposed by contemporary ecological conditions influence the adaptive divergence of pumpkinseed sunfish within polyphenic lake populations.

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      Uncertainty analysis of vegetation distribution in the northern high latitudes during the 21st century with a dynamic vegetation model (pages 593–614)

      Yueyang Jiang, Qianlai Zhuang, Sibyll Schaphoff, Stephen Sitch, Andrei Sokolov, David Kicklighter and Jerry Melillo

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.85

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      “The parameter- and climate-induced uncertainty contribute much in projecting the vegetation distribution in the northern high latitudes. Substantial changes in vegetation distribution is predicted during the current century.”

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      Do allopatric male Calopteryx virgo damselflies learn species recognition? (pages 615–621)

      Katja Kuitunen, Elina Haukilehto, Kaisa J. Raatikainen, Hanne Hakkarainen, Minna Miettinen, Harri Högmander and Janne S. Kotiaho

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.90

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      Here, we studied whether Calopteryx virgo damselflies can learn to discriminate heterospecific Calopteryx splendens females, or to associate with conspecific females. Some evidence for the latter was detected. We conclude that learning might play a role in species recognition also when individuals are not naïve but have already encountered potential conspecific mates.

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      Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: implication for flax domestication processes (pages 622–635)

      Yong-Bi Fu

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.101

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      We assessed the genetic relationships of 48 Linum samples representing pale flax and four trait-specific groups of cultivated flax (dehiscent, fiber, oil and winter) through population-based resequencing at 24 genomic regions, and revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax that displayed close relatedness to the pale flax samples, which has significant implications for flax domestication processes.

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      Spatial and temporal determinants of genetic structure in Gentianella bohemica (pages 636–648)

      Julia Königer, Carolin A. Rebernig, Jiří Brabec, Kathrin Kiehl and Josef Greimler

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.211

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      Using AFLP fingerprint data we investigated the genetic structure within and among populations of Gentianella bohemica in Bavaria, the Czech Republic, and the Austrian border region. The aim of our study was (i) to analyze the genetic structure among populations and to discuss these findings in the context of present and historical patterns of connectivity and isolation of populations, (ii) to analyze genetic structure among consecutive generations (cohorts of two consecutive years) and (iii) to investigate relationships between intra-populational diversity and effective population size (Ne) as well as plant traits. Overall, we found that the genetic structure in G. bohemica is strongly influenced by historical periods of high connectivity and isolation as well as by marked demographic fluctuations in declining populations.

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      The impact of Pleistocene climate change on an ancient arctic–alpine plant: multiple lineages of disparate history in Oxyria digyna (pages 649–665)

      Geraldine A. Allen, Kendrick L. Marr, Laurie J. McCormick and Richard J. Hebda

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.213

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      The circumpolar arctic-alpine plant Oxyria digyna includes at least 6 highly divergent plastid DNA lineages with estimated ages of 0.5–2.5 million yr. The different ages and distributions of these lineages indicate persistence in multiple refugia and repeated episodes of dispersal through several glacial cycles.

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      Subtle genetic structure reveals restricted connectivity among populations of a coral reef fish inhabiting remote atolls (pages 666–679)

      Jim N. Underwood, Michael J. Travers and James P. Gilmour

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.80

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      We utilised a spatial and temporal analyses of genetic structure, supplemented with ecological and oceanographic analysis, to assess patterns of population connectivity in a coral reef fish Chromis margaritifer among the unique and remote atolls in the eastern indian Ocean. A subtle, but significant genetic discontinuity at ten microsatellite DNA loci was detected between atoll systems corresponding with a low (≤1%) probability of advection across the hundreds of kilometress of open ocean that separates them. Thus, although genetic connections between systems are likely maintained by occasional long-distance dispersal of C. margaritifer larvae, ecological population connectivity at this spatial scale appears to be restricted.

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