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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 5

May 2012

Volume 2, Issue 5

Pages i–i, 875–1081

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.279

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      RNA/DNA ratios in American glass eels (Anguilla rostrata): evidence for latitudinal variation in physiological status and constraints to oceanic migration? (pages 875–884)

      Simon Laflamme, Caroline Côté, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire, Martin Castonguay and Louis Bernatchez

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.212

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      RNA/DNA ratios were measured to test for geographic differences in physiological status in American glass eels. A significant latitudinal variation in mean RNA/DNA ratios was found which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its minimum in the central range of distribution.

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      Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization (pages 885–898)

      Brettney L. Pilgrim, Robert C. Perry, Donald G. Keefe, Elizabeth A. Perry and H. Dawn Marshall

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.200

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      In conservation genetic and management it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterise and preserve diversity. As part of a ten-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. In addition to the strong role of the historical process of recolonization on shaping the pattern of present-day genetic structure of brook trout populations in Labrador, we find evidence that a contemporary factor, watershed structure, is also important.

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      Interactive effects of past and present environments on overwintering success—a reciprocal transplant experiment (pages 899–907)

      Tuula A. Oksanen, Minna Koivula, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes and Carl D. Soulsbury

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.82

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      The article presents a reciprocal transplant experiment carried out to study the effects of past and present population densities on the body size and survival of bank voles. The results reveal an interacting effect of past and present density on survival. The results are discussed in the context of fluctuating vole population dynamics.

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      Phylogeographic insights into an irruptive pest outbreak (pages 908–919)

      Catherine I. Cullingham, Amanda D. Roe, Felix A. H. Sperling and David W. Coltman

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.102

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      We use a phylogeographic approach to understand the progression of an outbreak by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. We found high halplotype diversity and limited lineage diversification consistent with dispersive populations. Based on our findings there were likely multiple outbreak sources and the population demographics obscure signatures of recent population expansion.

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      Fine scale relationships between sex, life history, and dispersal of masu salmon (pages 920–929)

      Shigeru Kitanishi, Toshiaki Yamamoto, Itsuro Koizumi, Jason B. Dunham and Seigo Higashi

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.228

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      We investigated patterns of dispersal in masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) to evaluate influences of sex and life history on dispersal. Assignment tests and isolation by distance analysis revealed that dispersal of marine-migratory masu salmon was male-biased and that marine-migratory males dispersed more than residents males. This study revealed that both sex and migratory life history influence patterns of dispersal at local scale in masu salmon.

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      Sex, horizontal transmission, and multiple hosts prevent local adaptation of Crithidia bombi, a parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) (pages 930–940)

      Silvio Erler, Mario Popp, Stephan Wolf and H. Michael G. Lattorff

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.250

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      Local adaptation within host-parasite systems can evolve by several non-exclusive drivers (e.g. host species-genetic adaptation; ecological conditions-ecological adaptation and time-temporal adaptation). Here we study local adaptation in a multiple-host (Bombus) parasite (Crithidia bombi) characterized by high levels of horizontal transmission. Although we found no evidence for local adaptation of the parasite towards host species, there was a slight temporal differentiation of the parasite populations which might have resulted from severe bottlenecks during queen hibernation.

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      Adaptation to larval crowding in Drosophila ananassae leads to the evolution of population stability (pages 941–951)

      Snigdhadip Dey, Joy Bose and Amitabh Joshi

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.227

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      Tradeoffs between fitness at low and high density (r-K tradeoffs) can result in the evolution of population stability under crowding. This study shows that adaptation to crowding in fruitflies can lead to the evolution of greater stability, likely through an r-K tradeoff. Even without a reduction in r, higher K can lead to stability, suggesting that crowding may be an important factor promoting stability in natural populations.

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      No evidence for niche segregation in a North American Cattail (Typha) species complex (pages 952–961)

      Andrew McKenzie-Gopsill, Heather Kirk, Wendy Van Drunen, Joanna R. Freeland and Marcel E. Dorken

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.225

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      Cattails in eastern North America are widely thought to occupy divergent niches along a gradient in water depth. This divergent niche occupancy has been predicted to promote the maintenance of native cattails in regions in which they co-occur with invasive cattails and their hybrid descendant species. Here we provide clear evidence that cattails are not segregated along gradients of water depth, and refute the prediction that these gradients promote the maintenance of native cattails.

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      Uncontrolled admixture and loss of genetic diversity in a local Vietnamese pig breed (pages 962–975)

      Cécile Berthouly-Salazar, Sophie Thévenon, Thu Nhu Van, Binh Trong Nguyen, Lan Doan Pham, Cuong Vu Chi and Jean-Charles Maillard

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.229

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      This work aims to highlight the crossbreed status of a Vietnamese pig breed by using microsatellites. We showed that the introduction of exotic breeds and crossbreeds in this remote area constitute a major threat for the local pig breed. Integration of management practices were used for modeling genetic loss.

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      The ecological–evolutionary interplay: density-dependent sexual selection in a migratory songbird (pages 976–987)

      Thomas B. Ryder, Robert C. Fleischer, W. Greg Shriver and Peter P. Marra

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.254

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      This article aims to quantify how anthropogenic habitat modifications and the ecological factors associated with these changes affect the dynamics of sexual selection in a migratory bird. The results show that localized breeding density and frequency dependent interactions between the sexes can influence reproductive strategies and the opportunity for and the strength of sexual selection.

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      Comparison of two views of maximum entropy in biodiversity: Frank (2011) and Pueyo et al. (2007) (pages 988–993)

      Salvador Pueyo

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.231

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      Many researchers are turning their attention to the maximum entropy formalism, which gives straightforward predictions of simple patterns emerging in complex ecosystems. Here I tackle a problem faced by anybody willing to apply this approach: the lack of consistency among the methods used by different authors.

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      Phylogenetic analysis of cryptic speciation in the polychaete Pygospio elegans (pages 994–1007)

      J. E. Kesäniemi, P. D. Rawson, S. M. Lindsay and K. E. Knott

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.226

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      Despite different developmental modes (planktonic, brooded, and intermediate larvae) in the polychaete Pygospio elegans, we found no evidence for cryptic species. Sequence divergence in COI from samples covering a broad geographical range in Europe was low (1.7%) and most variation was observed within populations, not among regions.

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      Evidence of environmental niche differentiation in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys sp.): inference from its current distribution in southern Africa (pages 1008–1023)

      Christine N. Meynard, Neville Pillay, Manon Perrigault, Pierre Caminade and Guila Ganem

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.219

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      Here we used multivariate statistics and niche modelling to characterize the environmental niche of the African Stripe Mouse Rhabdomys and project their potential distributions. We discuss niche differentiation, potential distribution and contact zones in the context of the regional biogeographic history and ecological implications.

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      Phylogeography of Tibouchina papyrus (Pohl) Toledo (Melastomataceae), an endangered tree species from rocky savannas, suggests bidirectional expansion due to climate cooling in the Pleistocene (pages 1024–1035)

      Rosane Garcia Collevatti, Thaís Guimarães de Castro, Jacqueline de Souza Lima and Mariana Pires de Campos Telles

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.236

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      Many endemic species present disjunct geographical distribution and like so are suitable models to test hypotheses about the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms involved in the origin of disjunct distributions in these habitats. Here we studied the genetic structure and phylogeography of Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae), endemic to rocky savannas in Central Brazil, to test hypothesis of vicariance and dispersal in the origin of the disjunct geographical distribution.

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      The juvenile social environment introduces variation in the choice and expression of sexually selected traits (pages 1036–1047)

      Michael M. Kasumovic, Matthew D. Hall and Robert C. Brooks

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.230

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      We demonstrate that the social environment introduces variation in sexually selected traits by modifying the behavioural components of male production and female choice. We suggest that the social environment is an overlooked source of phenotypic variation and discuss the plasticity of trait expression and preference in reference to estimations of male quality and the concept of condition dependence.

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      A comparison of four methods for detecting weak genetic structure from marker data (pages 1048–1055)

      Owen R. Jones and Jinliang Wang

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.237

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      Genetic structure results from processes of natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow. Weak genetic structure may be unimportant genetically but could have important implications in ecology and conservation biology and it is therefore important to be able to detect and quantify it. We test four methods (FST, population assignment, relatedness, and sibship assignment) and show that all perform qualitatively similarly, but the population assignment method performs relatively poorly when structure is weak.

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      Host plant defense signaling in response to a coevolved herbivore combats introduced herbivore attack (pages 1056–1064)

      Anastasia M. Woodard, Gary N. Ervin and Travis D. Marsico

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.224

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      Defense-free space has been implicated as a factor facilitating invasion success of some phytophagous insect species, but host plants may not be entirely defenseless against novel herbivores. Volatile chemical-mediated defense signaling may play a role in systems experiencing novel threats. Here we investigate defense responses of host plants to a native and exotic herbivore and show that (1) host plants defend more effectively against the coevolved herbivore, (2) plants can be induced to defend against a newly-associated herbivore when in proximity to plants actively defending against the coevolved species, and (3) these defenses affect larval performance.

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      Gene or environment? Species-specific control of stomatal density and length (pages 1065–1070)

      Lirong Zhang, Haishan Niu, Shiping Wang, Xiaoxue Zhu, Caiyun Luo, Yingnian Li and Xinquan Zhao

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.233

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      Stomatal characteristics are widely used as proxies for paleo-environmetal factors. While the variation among plants in the response pattern constitutes an important source of uncertainty, its degree is not well known. Based on a reciprocal transplanting experiment, we found that the extent to which genetics and the environment determine stomatal initiation and development was species-specific.

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      The role of endosymbionts in the evolution of haploid-male genetic systems in scale insects (Coccoidea) (pages 1071–1081)

      Laura Ross, David M. Shuker, Benjamin B. Normark and Ido Pen

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.222

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      Here we use a comparative analysis on scale insects to test the recent hypothesis that endosymbiont-host conflict has played a role in the evolution of haploid male genetic systems.

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