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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 6

June 2012

Volume 2, Issue 6

Pages i–i, 1083–1329

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.303

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Shifts in morphology and diet of non-native sticklebacks introduced into Japanese crater lakes (pages 1083–1098)

      Tatsuya Adachi, Asano Ishikawa, Seiichi Mori, Wataru Makino, Manabu Kume, Masakado Kawata and Jun Kitano

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.234

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      Threespine sticklebacks were introduced into crater lakes likely along with salmonids transplanted for aquaculture. Compilation of historical data on the morphology and stomach contents of a crater lake population (Lake Towada population) showed that substantial shifts in body size and stomach contents occurred after colonization. The outbreak of Schistocephalus parasite also occurred.

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      Fine-scale parallel patterns in diversity of small benthic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in relation to the ecology of lava/groundwater habitats (pages 1099–1112)

      Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason, Sigurður S. Snorrason and David L.G. Noakes

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.235

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      It is critical to study factors that are important for origin and maintenance of biological diversity. We used population comparison to study the relationship between ecological factors and phenotypic diversity in Icelandic small benthic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The study showed that ecological factors are important for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity.

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      Sea snakes rarely venture far from home (pages 1113–1121)

      Vimoksalehi Lukoschek and Richard Shine

      Article first published online: 1 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.256

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      Turtleheaded sea snakes have extremely low dispersal over small spatial scales. Snakes only moved between two adjacent bays in 2 of 817 recaptures over eight years. Population genetic analyses detected two distinct populations, one in each bay. Low dispersal has strong implications for the biology of reef-associated sea snakes.

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      Population genetic dynamics of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in anthropogenic altered habitats (pages 1122–1143)

      Joern P. Scharsack, Hannah Schweyen, Alexander M. Schmidt, Janine Dittmar, Thorsten B.H. Reusch and Joachim Kurtz

      Article first published online: 1 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.232

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      Anthropogenic alterations of aquatic habitats may have diverse effects on the population genetic structure of inhabiting three-spined sticklebacks. Depending on the type of habitat change, increased genetic differentiation, diversification and isolation are possible consequences.

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      Host adaptations reduce the reproductive success of Varroa destructor in two distinct European honey bee populations (pages 1144–1150)

      Barbara Locke, Yves Le Conte, Didier Crauser and Ingemar Fries

      Article first published online: 1 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.248

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      European honey bees in two subset populations located in France and Sweden have demonstrated host adaptation to natural infestation levels of the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. The mite's reproductive success was reduced almost equally in both populations by 30% compared to control colonies but the evolved mechanisms for this host resistance appear to be different between these populations.

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      Within and between population variation in plant traits predicts ecosystem functions associated with a dominant plant species (pages 1151–1161)

      Lauren C. Breza, Lara Souza, Nathan J. Sanders and Aimée T. Classen

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.223

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      Our work is the first to measure intra-specific variation in performance traits and physiological traits within an ecologically relevant plant species elucidating potential implications towards ecosystem-level carbon dynamics in both northern and southern geographic ranges. We also link intra-specific variation in performance traits to better explain ecosystem-level carbon dynamics.

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      Longitudinal trends in climate drive flowering time clines in North American Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 1162–1180)

      Karen E. Samis, Courtney J. Murren, Oliver Bossdorf, Kathleen Donohue, Charles B. Fenster, Russell L. Malmberg, Michael D. Purugganan and John R. Stinchcombe

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.262

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      We find strong evidence for substantial within population genetic variation in quantitative traits and flowering time, and putatively adaptive longitudinal differentiation, despite low levels of variation at FRI, FLC, and PHYC and genome-wide reductions in population structure relative to Eurasian samples. The observed longitudinal cline in flowering time in North America is parallel to a Eurasian cline, robust to the effects of population structure, and associated with geographic variation in winter precipitation and temperature.

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      The effect of purging on sexually selected traits through antagonistic pleiotropy with survival (pages 1181–1194)

      Geir H. Bolstad, Christophe Pélabon, Line-K. Larsen, Ian A. Fleming, Åslaug Viken and Gunilla Rosenqvist

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.246

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      We showed that the negative effect of inbreeding on the orange coloration in the guppy most likely results from the purging of recessive alleles that negatively affect survival but positively affect orange coloration. This result supports R. A. Fisher's prediction that sexually selected traits evolve to a point where their positive effects on reproductive success are counterbalanced by their negative effect on survival.

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      Intraspecific variability in the response of bloom-forming marine microalgae to changed climate conditions (pages 1195–1207)

      Anke Kremp, Anna Godhe, Jenny Egardt, Sam Dupont, Sanna Suikkanen, Silvia Casabianca and Antonella Penna

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.245

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      Marine microalgae can display high levels of genetic diversity in population which, when reflected by phenotypic variability, may stabilize a species response to environmental changes. We studied the effects of increased temperature and CO2 availability as predicted consequences of global change, on multiple clones of two geographic diatom populations (Skeletonema marinoi) and of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. Our findings suggest that phenotypic variability within populations is an important factor in the response of marine primary producers to climate change, potentially attenuating short-term effects and determining the direction of long-term selection.

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      The role of the Ord Arid Intrusion in the historical and contemporary genetic division of long-tailed finch subspecies in northern Australia (pages 1208–1219)

      Lee Ann Rollins, Nina Svedin, Sarah R. Pryke and Simon C. Griffith

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.259

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      Evidence from many taxa distributed across northern Australia indicates that the Ord Arid Intrusion has acted as an agent of vicariance. It has been suggested that subspecies of the long-tailed finch (Poephila acuticauda) arose as a result of this historical biogeographic barrier. Using mitochondrial sequence data and samples taken across the range of this species, we test this hypothesis. Further, changes to climate since the last glacial maximum have resulted in a reconnection of habitat on either side of this historical biogeographic barrier. We also estimate levels of contemporary gene flow within this species complex using microsatellite data to determine if genetic mixing between subspecies has occurred following secondary contact.

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      Phylogeography of the prehensile-tailed skink Corucia zebrata on the Solomon Archipelago (pages 1220–1234)

      Ingerid J. Hagen, Stephen C. Donnellan and C. Michael Bull

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.84

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      Corucia zebrata were samples from 14 locations across the Solomon Archipelago, and sequenced at two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4; 1697 bp in total). Measures of genetic divergence, analyses of genetic variation and Bayesian phylogenetic inference were used and assessed in light of geological information on Pleistocene land bridges and island age. Dispersal between islands has been very limited and there are barriers to gene flow within the major islands. Islands that have been isolated during the Pleistocene glacial cycles are somewhat divergent in their mitochondrial genotypes; however, isolation by distance and recent colonization of isolated but geologically younger islands appear to have had stronger effects on the phylogeography of C. zebrata than the Pleistocene glacial cycles.

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      Plant root distributions and nitrogen uptake predicted by a hypothesis of optimal root foraging (pages 1235–1250)

      Ross E. McMurtrie, Colleen M. Iversen, Roderick C. Dewar, Belinda E. Medlyn, Torgny Näsholm, David A. Pepper and Richard J. Norby

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.266

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      The relationship between root distributions and N uptake is analysed using a new optimizations hypothesis (MaxNup) for root foraging in relation to spatial variability of soil N, according to which a given total root mass is distributed vertically in order to maximise annual N uptake. MaxNup makes predictions of the optimal vertical profile of root biomass, maximum rooting depth and N-uptake efficiency (i.e. the fraction of available soil N taken up annually by roots).

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      Effects of adaptation, chance, and history on the evolution of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum under selection of increased temperature and acidification (pages 1251–1259)

      Antonio Flores-Moya, Mónica Rouco, María Jesús García-Sánchez, Camino García-Balboa, Raquel González, Eduardo Costas and Victoria López-Rodas

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.198

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      The roles of adaptation, chance and history on evolution of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim, under selective conditions simulating global change, have been addressed. Two toxic strains (AL1V and AL2V), previously acclimated for two years at pH 8.0 and 20 °C, were transferred to selective conditions: pH 7.5 to simulate acidification and 25 °C. Cultures under selective conditions were propagated until growth rate and toxin cell quota achieved an invariant means value at 720 days (ca. 250 and ca. 180 genetations for strains AL1V and AL2V, respectively).

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      Integrating species distribution models (SDMs) and phylogeography for two species of Alpine Primula (pages 1260–1277)

      G. Schorr, N. Holstein, P. B. Pearman, A. Guisan and J. W. Kadereit

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.100

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      The major intention of the present study of two closely related species of Alpine Primula was to investigate whether an approach combining niche-based palaeodistribution modeling (LGM) and phylogeography (AFLPs) would support or modify hypotheses about the Quaternary distributional history derived from phylogeographic methods alone. We demonstrate that the combination approaches provide a more differentiated picture and partly support (P. hirsuta) and partly modify (P. daonensis and P. hirsuta) hypotheses of Quaternary distributional history. Some of the refugial area indicated by palaeodistribution models could not have been identified with phylogeographic data.

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      Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene (pages 1278–1295)

      Sarah A. Sonsthagen, R. Terry Chesser, Douglas A. Bell and Carla J. Dove

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.240

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      Concordance in haplotype and allele groups suggests that white-headed gulls were subdivided into at least two refugia that persisted for extended periods of time during the Pleistocene. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory. The strong tendency for hybridization in this group erased the genetic signature of Pleistocene refugia.

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      Regionally nested patterns of fish assemblages in floodplain lakes of the Magdalena river (Colombia) (pages 1296–1303)

      Carlos Granado-Lorencio, Andrés Hernández Serna, Juan David Carvajal, Luz Fernanda Jiménez-Segura, Alejandra Gulfo and Frank Alvarez

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.238

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      We investigated if fish assemblages in neotropical floodplain lakes (cienagas) exhibit nestedness, and thus offer support to the managers of natural resources of the area for their decision making. Floodplain lakes of the middle section of the Magdalena River, Colombia.

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      Outbreeding and lack of temporal genetic structure in a drone congregation of the neotropical stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana (pages 1304–1311)

      Matthias Y. Mueller, Robin F.A. Moritz and F. Bernhard Kraus

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.203

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      Drone aggregations are a widespread phenomenon in many stingless bee species (Meliponini), but the ultimate and proximate causes for their formation are still not well understood. We analyzed the temporal genetic dynamics of a drone aggregation of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana with microsatellite markers over a time window of four weeks. This study highlights that the diverse genetic composition and the distant origin of the drones of the S. mexicana drone congregation provides an effective mechanism to avoid mating among close relatives.

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      A genetic polymorphism in the sex-linked ATP5A1 gene is associated with individual fitness in Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) (pages 1312–1318)

      Judith D. Toms, Lori S. Eggert, Wayne J. Arendt and John Faaborg

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.272

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      We found a genetic polymorphism in the ATP5A1 gene in 38% of individual Ovenbirds. Males that had one or more copies of this allele had higher relative body mass (mass corrected for size) than other genotypes. This study is the first to link polymorphisms in the sex-linked ATP5A1 gene with fitness effects.

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      Using clones and copper to resolve the genetic architecture of metal tolerance in a marine invader (pages 1319–1329)

      Louise A. McKenzie, Emma L. Johnston and Robert Brooks

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.241

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      The global spread of invasive species may be facilitated by adaptation to the metal-based antifouling biocides on ship hulls humans use to manage those species. We tested this idea by studying clonal variation in tolerance to, and ability to recover from, exposure to copper in a widespread invasive marine bryozoan, Watersipora subtorquata. Overall the genetic variation within this population indicates that there is considerable potential for adaptation to copper, but this comes at a cost to growth in unpolluted environments.

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