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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 7

July 2012

Volume 2, Issue 7

Pages i–i, 1331–1779

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.340

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Complex genetic patterns in closely related colonizing invasive species (pages 1331–1346)

      Aibin Zhan, John A. Darling, Dan G. Bock, Anaïs Lacoursière-Roussel, Hugh J. MacIsaac and Melania E. Cristescu

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.258

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      We characterize genetic structure of 26 populations (N = 873) of a highly invasive tunicate species complex, Ciona intestinalis, sampled from both coasts of North America. We found extremely complex genetic patterns in both species on both coasts (i.e. spA on the west coast and spB on the east coast) based on phylogenetic and population genetics analyses at mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellites. Analyses suggest that multiple factors could be responsible for the observed genetic complexities.

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      Influence of dietary specialization and resource availability on geographical variation in abundance of butterflyfish (pages 1347–1361)

      Rebecca J. Lawton and Morgan S. Pratchett

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.253

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      Many butterflyfishes are highly vulnerable to coral loss due to their dependence on hard corals for food. We demonstrate that despite their relatively specialised diets, availability of coral dietary resources has only limited influence on the local abundance of coral-feeding butterflyfishes. Our results highlight the need to be wary of assigning specialised species high vulnerability status due to assumed resource dependence without conducting independent assessments.

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      Sex-specific effects of developmental environment on reproductive trait expression in Drosophila melanogaster (pages 1362–1370)

      Dominic A. Edward and Tracey Chapman

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.243

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      Variation in the expression of reproductive traits provides the raw material upon which sexual selection can act. In this study, we addressed these issues in a systematic study of the effect of a key environmental factor, variation in larval density, on reproductive trait expression in male and female Drosophila melanogaster.

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      Evolution of a sexually dimorphic trait in a broadly distributed topminnow (Fundulus olivaceus) (pages 1371–1381)

      Jacob F. Schaefer, David D. Duvernell, Brian R. Kreiser, Charles Champagne, Scott R. Clark, Melissa Gutierrez, Laura K. Stewart and Chazz Coleman

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.242

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      Using field and experimental data, we investigated natural and sexual selection of a sexually dimorphic trait (spot density) throughout the range of a broadly distributed topminnow. Greater density was positively correlated with measures of male fitness. Males with more spots were preferred by females and suffered greater mortality due to predation. Across drainages, water clarity (turbidity) was the best predictor of spot density, indicating the visual environmental likely mediates the balance between sexual and natural selection for this trait.

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      Understanding of the impact of chemicals on amphibians: a meta-analytic review (pages 1382–1397)

      Andrés Egea-Serrano, Rick A. Relyea, Miguel Tejedo and Mar Torralva

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.249

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      Past reviews, using vote-counting methods, have described pollution as one of the major threats faced by amphibians. However, vote-counting methods lack strong statistical power, do not permit one to determine the magnitudes of effects, and do not compare responses among pre-defined groups. To address these challenges, we conducted a meta-analysis of experimental studies that measured the effects of different chemical pollutants (nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds, pesticides, road de-icers, heavy metals, and other wastewater contaminants) at environmentally relevant concentrations on amphibian survival, mass, time to hatching, time to metamorphosis, and frequency of abnormalities.

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      Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission (pages 1398–1407)

      Andrew W. Park

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.257

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      Animal movement can prevent regional population extinction or spread infectious diseases, leading to an unresolved debate on the benefits of dispersal. I introduce the neglected role of environmental transmission using a metapopulation model, and show that this common transmission route alters our assessment of when animal movement is beneficial. Lastly, I combine environmental transmission with intra- and inter-specific direct transmission to evaluate how combined transmission mechanisms act with animal movement to regulate population sizes.

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      Consequences of changing rainfall for fungal pathogen-induced mortality in tropical tree seedlings (pages 1408–1413)

      Tom Swinfield, Owen T. Lewis, Robert Bagchi and Robert P. Freckleton

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.252

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      We provide evidence that changing both the frequency and amount of rainfall is likely to affect the numbers of seedlings dying from the effects of fungal pathogens. This is likely to have consequences for forest structure and diversity.

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      The effects of reproductive specialization on energy costs and fitness genetic variances in cyclical and obligate parthenogenetic aphids (pages 1414–1425)

      Mauricio J. Carter, Jean-Christophe Simon and Roberto F. Nespolo

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.247

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      Genetic and metabolic consequences of reproductive specialization of life history traits in the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi. Positive genetic correlation and absence of maintenance cost as a potential life-history strategy.

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      Female teneral mating in a monandrous species (pages 1426–1436)

      Karine Monceau and Joan van Baaren

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.264

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      Schultesia nitor is a gregarious cockroach species living in Cacique's pouch-like nests in tropical areas. Females produce only one brood during their life and die, but this one brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating attempts (i.e. monandry vs. polyandry). Although aggregation enhances opportunities for finding a mate, if females were monandrous, male-male competition for virgin females would be pronounced. We determined sexual receptivity of both males and females and then tested the existence of multiple matings in females. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous with the occurrence of female teneral mating which calls into question the occurrence of a male monopolization strategy.

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      Introduction pathway and climate trump ecology and life history as predictors of establishment success in alien frogs and toads (pages 1437–1445)

      Alfredo Rago, Geoffrey M. While and Tobias Uller

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.261

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      We show that establishment success of non-native amphibians is primarily explained by introduction pathways and climatic similarity between the native range and introduction locality, with minor contributions from phylogeny, species ecology, and life history. This finding contrasts with recent evidence that particular species characteristics promote evolutionary range expansion and reduce the probability of extinction in native populations of amphibians. We suggest that contemporary changes in the distribution of amphibians will be primarily determined by human-mediated extinctions and movement of species within climatic envelopes, and less by species-typical traits.

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      Parent–offspring conflicts, “optimal bad motherhood” and the “mother knows best” principles in insect herbivores colonizing novel host plants (pages 1446–1457)

      Carlos García-Robledo and Carol C. Horvitz

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.267

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      Specialization of insect herbivores to one or a few host plants stimulated the development of two hypotheses on how natural selection should shape oviposition preferences: The "mother-knows-best" principle suggests that females prefer to oviposit on hosts that increase offspring survival. The "optimal-bad-motherhood" principle predicts that females prefer to oviposit on hosts that increase their own longevity. In insects colonizing novel host plants, current theory predicts that initial preferences of insect herbivores should be maladaptive, leading to ecological traps. Ecological trap theory does not take into account the fact that insect lineages frequently switch hosts at both ecological and evolutionary time scales. Therefore, the behavior of insect herbivores facing novel hosts is also shaped by natural selection. Using as study system four Cephaloleia beetles currently expanding their diets from native to exotic plants from the order Zingiberales, we determined if initial oviposition preferences are conservative, maladaptive or follow the patterns predicted by the "mother-knows-best" or the "optimal-bad-motherhood" principles. Interactions with novel hosts generated parent-offspring conflicts. Larval survival was higher on native hosts. However, adult longevity may increase on novel host plants. In Cephaloleia beetles, oviposition preferences are usually associated with hosts that increase larval survival, female fecundity, and population growth. In most cases, Cephaloleia oviposition preferences follow the expectations of the "mothers-knows-best" principle.

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      Inferring the annual migration patterns of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the United States from mitochondrial haplotypes (pages 1458–1467)

      Rodney N. Nagoshi, Robert L. Meagher and Mirian Hay-Roe

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.268

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      We developed a genetic method that can be used to compare the movements of the overwintering populations from Texas and Florida of the fall armyworm subpopulation (designated the corn-strain) that primarily infests corn and cotton. We used this method to analyze fall armyworm collections from major corn-producing regions in the southern, central, and eastern U.S. The data was used to extrapolate the migratory patterns of the Texas and Florida overwintering populations and identify areas of overlap and where genetic interactions could occur.

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      Hiding deep in the trees: discovery of divergent mitochondrial lineages in Malagasy chameleons of the Calumma nasutum group (pages 1468–1479)

      Philip-Sebastian Gehring, Krystal A. Tolley, Falk Sebastian Eckhardt, Ted M. Townsend, Thomas Ziegler, Fanomezana Ratsoavina, Frank Glaw and Miguel Vences

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.269

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      Analysis of molecular and morphological data suggest that the short-nosed chameleons from Madagascar comprise a large number of previously unrecognized lineages. Our data suggest that instead of the current 7 species, the group might be comprised of 20-30 distinct species.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Assessing the roles of population density and predation risk in the evolution of offspring size in populations of a placental fish (pages 1480–1490)

      Matthew Schrader and Joseph Travis

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.255

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      Population density is an ecological variable that is hypothesized to be a major agent of selection on offspring size. In high-density populations, high levels of intraspecific competition are expected to favor the production of larger offspring. In this study, we use data from a ten-year study of nine populations of the least killifish, Heterandria formosa, to examine if offspring size co-varies with population density.

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      Maintenance of genetic diversity in cyclic populations—a longitudinal analysis in Myodes glareolus (pages 1491–1502)

      Kaisa Rikalainen, Jouni Aspi, Juan A. Galarza, Esa Koskela and Tapio Mappes

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.277

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      Conspicuous cyclic changes in population density characterize many populations of small northern rodents. The extreme crashes in individual number are expected to reduce the amount of genetic variation within a population during the crash phases of the population cycle. By long-term monitoring of a bank vole (Myodes glareolus) population we show that despite the substantial and repetitive crashes in the population size, high heterozygosity is maintained throughout the population cycle. The striking population density fluctuation in fact only slightly reduced the allelic richness of the population during the crash phases. Effective population sizes of vole populations remained also relatively high even during the crash phases. The peak phases are characterized by both a change in spatial pattern of individuals and a rapid accession of new alleles.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Climatic niche shift predicts thermal trait response in one but not both introductions of the Puerto Rican lizard Anolis cristatellus to Miami, Florida, USA (pages 1503–1516)

      Jason J. Kolbe, Paul S. VanMiddlesworth, Neil Losin, Nathan Dappen and Jonathan B. Losos

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.263

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      Global change is predicted to alter environmental conditions for populations in numerous ways: for example, invasive species often experience substantial shifts in climatic conditions during introduction from their native to non-native ranges. We combined modeling, field data, and a laboratory experiment to test for changing thermal tolerances during the introduction of the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus from Puerto Rico to Miami, FL. As predicted from the changing thermal environment, laboratory acclimation and field acclimatization showed that the introduced South Miami population of A. cristatellus has diverged from its native-range source population by acquiring low-temperature acclimation ability.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The endemic gastropod fauna of Lake Titicaca: correlation between molecular evolution and hydrographic history (pages 1517–1530)

      Oliver Kroll, Robert Hershler, Christian Albrecht, Edmundo M. Terrazas, Roberto Apaza, Carmen Fuentealba, Christian Wolff and Thomas Wilke

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.280

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      It is generally assumed that the complex paleohydrology of ancient Lake Titicaca has helped shape the evolutionary history of the lake's biota. Herein we study an endemic species assemblage in the lake, composed of members of the microgastropod genus Heleobia, to determine whether the lake has functioned as a reservoir of relic species or the site of local diversification, to evaluate congruence of the regional paleohydrology and the evolutionary history of this assemblage, and to assess whether the geographic distributions of endemic lineages are hierarchical. We demonstrate that the endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying intralacustrine speciation, show that the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca is congruent, propose that the unstable hydrographic history of the Altiplano has led to range expansions of endemic taxa and suggest that salinity tolerance was the most likely limiting factor in the evolution of Lake Titicaca/Altiplano species.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A European phylogeography of Rhinanthus minor compared to Rhinanthus angustifolius: unexpected splits and signs of hybridization (pages 1531–1548)

      Jérôme Vrancken, Christian Brochmann and Renate A. Wesselingh

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.276

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      AFLPs and cpDNA sequence data were used to establish a phylogeography of Rhinanthus minor, to compare with its close congener R. angustifolius, with which it hybridizes. The most common haplotypes were shared between the species, and the southeastern populations of R. minor turned out to be genetically very distinct from populations in the rest of Europe.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Harvest selection on Atlantic cod behavioral traits: implications for spatial management (pages 1549–1562)

      Esben Moland Olsen, Michelle R. Heupel, Colin A. Simpfendorfer and Even Moland

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.244

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      Understanding fisheries-induced selection is important for management and conservation of harvested species. Here, we quantify the selective impact of Norwegian coastal fishing activities on behavioral traits of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in their natural habitat. Furthermore, we document consistent individual differences in fish behavior over time, and also that fish behavior is associated with their life history (body size).

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long-term breeding phenology shift in royal penguins (pages 1563–1571)

      Mark A. Hindell, Corey J. A. Bradshaw, Barry W. Brook, Damien A. Fordham, Knowles Kerry, Cindy Hull and Clive R. McMahon

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.281

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      The article uses a rare long-term data set from a Southern Ocean predator to describe a phenological shift over three decades. Such data are extremely scarce for the Southern Ocean. Further, we were able to demonstrate the change was (i) related to a large-scale climate factor, the Southern Annular Mode, which influences productivity and (ii) there is evidence for regional differences in predator response to these changes in productivity.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The evolution of preference strength under sensory bias: a role for indirect selection? (pages 1572–1583)

      Alicia M. Frame and Maria R. Servedio

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.273

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      Here, we ask whether indirect selection, arising through genetic associations during the sexual selection that sensory bias imposes, can itself influence the evolution of preference strength. We find that in most cases, indirect selection does not allow the evolution of stronger or weaker preferences for sensory bias; only in a "two-island" model, where there is restricted migration between different patches that favor different male phenotypes, did we find that preference strength could evolve.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mitochondrial lineages in Notochthamalus scabrosus as indicators of coastal recruitment and interactions (pages 1584–1591)

      Kelly M. Laughlin, Christine Ewers and John P. Wares

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.283

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      We used mitochondrial sequence data to re-evaluate an observed cline in the Chilean barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus. This study expands the observed range by over 2500 km and shows that the cline - which is concordant with a major biogeographic transition as well - is stable, though some locations exhibited dramatic changes in the frequency of the major haplogroups. The mechanism maintaining the distinction of the two major lineages is not yet known, but preliminary data in this paper suggests a combination of fitness/competition differentials is involved.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Historic hybridization and introgression between two iconic Australian anemonefish and contemporary patterns of population connectivity (pages 1592–1604)

      M. H. van der Meer, G. P. Jones, J.-P. A. Hobbs and L. van Herwerden

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.251

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      Historic hybridisation and introgression between two iconic Australian anemonefishes and contemporary patterns of population connectivity.

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      Flying with the birds? Recent large-area dispersal of four Australian Limnadopsis species (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata) (pages 1605–1626)

      Martin Schwentner, Brian V. Timms and Stefan Richter

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.265

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      In this study we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of four temporary water inhabiting Limnadopsis species. Patterns of recent gene flow were observed between central and southeastern Australia. Dispersal in these areas may be facilitated by high abundances of migratory birds. However, clear genetic structure was observed with respect to populations inhabiting northeastern Australia. Furthermore, the Murray-Darling Basin appears to be an important long-term refugial area for some Limnadopsis species.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Diet, sex, and death in field crickets (pages 1627–1636)

      Felix Zajitschek, Simon P. Lailvaux, Josephine Dessmann and Robert Brooks

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.288

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      We tested effects of reproduction, diet, and sex on senescence in field crickets. We show that the cost of reproduction in this species is sex- and diet-dependent, and that the underlying causes of sex differences in life-history traits like lifespan and senescence can be complex.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interfamily variation in amphibian early life-history traits: raw material for natural selection? (pages 1637–1643)

      Gareth R. Hopkins, Brian G. Gall, Susannah S. French and Edmund D. Brodie Jr.

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.287

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      Knowledge on the underlying interfamily variation necessary for natural selection in hatching timing and embryonic development have so far been lacking in studies of amphibian biology. Our research suggests that the variation necessary for natural selection to act upon is present in an amphibian's early life history and that these patterns of variation exist regardless of environmental temperature or maternal morphological differences.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolution of MHC class I genes in the European badger (Meles meles) (pages 1644–1662)

      Yung Wa Sin, Hannah L. Dugdale, Chris Newman, David W. Macdonald and Terry Burke

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.285

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      The European badger (Meles meles) exhibits moderate variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes when compared to other carnivores. Authors demonstrated evidence for separate evolutionary histories of the a1 and a2/a3 domains, which have most likely undergone concerted evolution. This findings highlight the importance of analysing MHC domains separately.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Population structure and demographic history of a tropical lowland rainforest tree species Shorea parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) from Southeastern Asia (pages 1663–1675)

      Hiroko Iwanaga, Kosuke M. Teshima, Ismael A. Khatab, Nobuyuki Inomata, Reiner Finkeldey, Iskandar Z. Siregar, Ulfah J. Siregar and Alfred E. Szmidt

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.284

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      The inferred demographic history of Shorea parvifolia suggested the presence of a scarcely forested land bridge on the Sunda Shelf during the glacial periods in the Pleistocene and a predominance of tropical lowland rainforest at least in Sumatra and eastern Borneo. We also found low level of migration after divergence of the Sumatra-Malay and Borneo groups.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      “Ménage à trois”: the presence/absence of thyme shapes the mutualistic interaction between the host plant Medicago truncatula (Fabaceae) and its symbiotic bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti (pages 1676–1681)

      Bodil K. Ehlers, Eva Grøndahl, Joëlle Ronfort and Thomas Bataillon

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.270

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      We study the mutualism involving legumes and rhizobia. Using a set of inbred lines from one legume model species (Medicago truncatula) inoculated with two types of rhizobia mix, we ask if the presence in the soil of a molecule released by a third biotic interacting species - the dominating plant Thymus vulgaris - affects the fitness of both partners. Our results suggest that heterogeneity in the biotic environment is important for understanding the evolution of species interactions.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Environmental diel variation, parasite loads, and local population structuring of a mixed-mating mangrove fish (pages 1682–1695)

      Amy Ellison, Patricia Wright, D. Scott Taylor, Chris Cooper, Kelly Regan, Suzie Currie and Sofia Consuegra

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.289

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      Our work analyses the factors underpinning local population structuring of a unique mixed-mating fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) under highly variable environmental conditions. We found that the mating system influenced by environmental instability can be critical for the local population structuring of mixed-mating species.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Complex agro-ecosystems for food security in a changing climate (pages 1696–1704)

      Uma Khumairoh, Jeroen C.J. Groot and Egbert A. Lantinga

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.271

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      Complex agricultural systems consisting of assemblages of plant and animal species can support ecological processes of nutrient cycling and pest control, which may lead to higher yields and reduced susceptibility to extreme weather conditions. We show that enhancing the complexity of an organic rice production system by adding combinations of compost, azolla, ducks, and fish resulted in strongly increased grain yields and revenues in a season with extremely adverse weather conditions on East Java, Indonesia. These results provide more insight in the agro-ecological processes and demonstrate how complex agricultural systems can contribute to food security in a changing climate.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The evolution of disease resistance and tolerance in spatially structured populations (pages 1705–1711)

      Felix Horns and Michael E. Hood

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.290

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      The work describes a simulation study of invasion trials for disease resistance and tolerance, providing new insights on the theory of their evolutionary dynamics. Recent publications have suggested that disease tolerance might exhibit an advantage over resistance, with the disease being used as a "weapon". However, by incorporating spatial structure into our analysis of epidemiological dynamics, we show that tolerance has a meaningful disadvantage that represents a barrier to its evolution.

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Impacts of upstream drought and water withdrawals on the health and survival of downstream estuarine oyster populations (pages 1712–1724)

      Laura E. Petes, Alicia J. Brown and Carley R. Knight

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.291

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      This study investigated the impacts of drought-related reductions in freshwater input on downstream estuarine oysters in the southeastern United States. Oysters suffered high disease-related mortality under high-salinity, drought conditions, and large oysters of commercially harvestable size were particularly susceptible. These findings have important implications for watershed and estuarine management, which will become increasingly challenging due to climate change and future population growth.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Longitudinal differentiation among pelagic populations in a planktic foraminifer (pages 1725–1737)

      Yurika Ujiié, Takahiro Asami, Thibault de Garidel-Thoron, Hui Liu, Yoshiyuki Ishitani and Colomban de Vargas

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.286

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      This present study tested a hypothesis that oceanic currents impede genetic differentiation of pelagic populations within a single climate zone. Our results clearly demonstrate longitudinal clines in the frequencies of three distinct genetic types in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool, despite the presence of oceanic currents flowing in a longitudinal direction. We revealed two important functions of oceanic current system: (1) separation of water masses as a hydrographic barrier against plankton dispersal and (2) limitation of gene flow between plankton populations.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ontogeny and sex alter the effect of predation on body shape in a livebearing fish: sexual dimorphism, parallelism, and costs of reproduction (pages 1738–1746)

      Elizabeth M. A. Hassell, Peter J. Meyers, Eric J. Billman, Josh E. Rasmussen and Mark C. Belk

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.278

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      We used geometric morphometrics to characterize body shape in a livebearing fish to test for interactions between predation, ontogeny, and sex - three major shape-determining factors. Shape of adult females between predation environments indicated a trade-off between optimal shape for predator evasion versus shape required for the livebearing mode of reproduction.

    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Consequences of high temperatures and premature mortality on the transcriptome and blood physiology of wild adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) (pages 1747–1764)

      Ken M. Jeffries, Scott G. Hinch, Thomas Sierocinski, Timothy D. Clark, Erika J. Eliason, Michael R. Donaldson, Shaorong Li, Paul Pavlidis and Kristi M. Miller

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.274

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      We undertook a comprehensive study to assess the effects of elevated water temperatures on the gill transcriptome and blood plasma variables in wild-caught salmon. After seven days of being held at the ecologically relevant temperatures of 14°C or 19°C, sockeye salmon held at 19°C stimulated heat shock response genes as well as many genes associated with an immune response when compared with fish held at 14°C in addition to having elevated plasma chloride and lactate. Time-matched fish that died prematurely over the course of the holding study were compared with surviving fish; the former fish were characterized by an up-regulation of several transcription factors associated with apoptosis and down-regulation of genes involved in immune function and antioxidant activity.

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      A maximum likelihood approach to generate hypotheses on the evolution and historical biogeography in the Lower Volga Valley regions (southwest Russia) (pages 1765–1779)

      Evgeny V. Mavrodiev, Alexy P. Laktionov and Nico Cellinese

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.282

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      The goal of this study is to reconstruct the putative biogeography of 13 areas in the Lower Volga Valley (SW Russia), given its highly dynamic geomorphology. By implementing a maximum likelihood approach and stochastic character mapping reconstruction we aimed at recovering historical signals from current species occurrence data. Our results suggest that the history of the floras in the Lower Volga Valley is very complex and independent of the late transgression phase direct influence on the geomorphological formation of the overall river valley.

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