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Presence of Preoperative Diastolic Dysfunction Predicts Postoperative Pulmonary Edema and Cardiovascular Complications in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery

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Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on predicting postoperative pulmonary edema and major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients who underwent low- or intermediate-risk noncardiac surgery.

Methods

A total of 692 patients aged >60 years who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) before undergoing elective low- or intermediate-risk noncardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled. The medical history and TTE variables were assessed. Each patient was clinically evaluated for postoperative pulmonary edema and MACE. The presence of postoperative pulmonary edema and MACE were evaluated during a 30-day follow-up period after surgery.

Results

We identified 166 patients with pulmonary edema and 49 patients with MACE. After adjusting for clinical and TTE variables, multivariate analysis demonstrated that a ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (E/e′) >15, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) ≥35 mmHg, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) were significantly associated with postoperative pulmonary edema (E/e′, P < 0.001: PASP, P = 0.005; LVH, P = 0.017). The multivariate analysis for MACE after adjusting for clinical risk factors indicated that MACE were significantly associated with an E/e′ > 15 (P < 0.001).

Conclusion

E/e′ > 15, PASP elevation, and LVH on preoperative TTE predicted postoperative pulmonary edema, and E/e′ > 15 predicted MACE in the patients who underwent low- or intermediate-risk noncardiac surgery. Thus, we believe that clinicians need to be cautious when providing perioperative care to patients with high E/e′ ratios who are indicated for TTE.

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