Factors determining high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values in the Spanish population. Di@bet.es study

Authors

  • Gemma Rojo-Martínez,

    1. Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
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  • Federico Soriguer,

    1. Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
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  • Natalia Colomo,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
    2. Río Hortega, Clinical Research Program of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
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  • Alfonso Calle,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario S. Carlos de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • Alberto Goday,

    1. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Elena Bordiú,

    1. Laboratorio de Endocrinología, Hospital Universitario San Carlos de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • Elías Delgado,

    1. Department of Medicine, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA), University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
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  • Edelmiro Menéndez,

    1. Department of Medicine, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA), University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
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  • Emilio Ortega,

    1. Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Inés Urrutia,

    1. Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Diabetes Research Group, Hospital Universitario de Cruces, UPV-EHU, Baracaldo, Spain
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  • Juan Girbés,

    1. Diabetes Unit, Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, Spain
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  • Luis Castaño,

    1. Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Diabetes Research Group, Hospital Universitario de Cruces, UPV-EHU, Baracaldo, Spain
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  • Miguel Catalá,

    1. Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Medicine and Endocrinology, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
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  • Sonia Gaztambide,

    1. Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Diabetes Research Group, Hospital Universitario de Cruces, UPV-EHU, Baracaldo, Spain
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  • Sergio Valdés,

    1. Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain
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  • On behalf of the di@bet.es study group

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    • Members of the di@bet.es study group are present in Appendix.


Federico Soriguer, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Carlos Haya, Plaza del Hospital Civil, 29009 Malaga, Spain. Tel/Fax: +34 952286704; e-mail: federico.soriguer.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es

Abstract

Eur J Clin Invest 2012

Abstract

Background  Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is currently used as a risk marker of cardiovascular disease, it has been suggested that genetic, clinical, biochemical or environmental factors could modify hs-CRP levels. The aim of this study was to investigate sources of interindividual hs-CRP variability in the Spanish population.

Materials and methods  A representative sample of the Spanish population within the di@bet.es study was used. Study variables included a clinical and demographic structured survey, a lifestyle survey, a physical examination, plasmatic hs-CRP and other biochemical parameters.

Results  Median and interquartile range of plasma hs-CRP values were 1·73 ± 2·75 mg/dL. Thirty per cent of the study population had hs-CRP levels above 3 mg/dL and 38% from 1 to 3 mg/dL. Body mass index was the strongest factor associated with moderate and high hs-CRP levels. Age, sex, waist-to-hip ratio, weight increase, plasma lipid levels, glucose metabolism (HOMA-IR and abnormal glucose regulation categories), pharmacological treatment (lipid-lowering agents, psychotropic drugs and levothyroxine), smoking, physical activity, different dietary patterns, quality of life and educational level were all significantly associated with hs-CRP levels. Interactions were observed between variables. These interactions modulated the effect of previously described factors on hs-CRP.

Conclusions  Thirty per cent of the Spanish population have hs-CRP levels considered to represent a cardiovascular risk. Different clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and environmental variables modulate hs-CRP levels. In addition, multiple interactions between variables complicate the interpretation of hs-CRP values.

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