Premenopausal women have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease compared to men of the same age. Endogenous oestrogens, especially estradiol, presumably protect against atherosclerosis by a variety of mechanisms. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) mechanisms also provide protection against this disease. RCT is defined as the removal of cholesterol from peripheral macrophage foam cells, via high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and cholesterol transportation to the liver for excretion. We have previously shown in a preliminary study that HDL, isolated from premenopausal women, enhanced macrophage cholesterol efflux compared to HDL derived from age-matched male subjects.