SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • Bibliometrics;
  • biomedical researchers;
  • citation counts;
  • h-index;
  • scientific impact;
  • scientometrics

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Method and construction of database
  5. Limitations and caveats
  6. Comparison with other lists of highly cited scientists
  7. Potential uses
  8. References

We have generated a list of highly influential biomedical researchers based on Scopus citation data from the period 1996-2011. Of the 15,153,100 author identifiers in Scopus, approximately 1% (n=149,655) have an h-index >=20. Of those, we selected 532 authors who belonged to the 400 with highest total citation count (>=25,142 citations) and/or the 400 with highest h-index (>=76). Of those, we selected the top-400 living core biomedical researchers based on a normalized score combining total citations and h-index. Another 62 authors whose focus is outside biomedicine had a normalized score that was at least as high as the score of the 400th core biomedical researcher. We provide information on the profile of these most influential authors, including the most common Medical Subject Heading terms in their articles that are also specific to their work, most common journals where they publish, number of papers with over 100 citations that they have published as first/single, last, or middle authors, and impact score adjusted for authorship positions, given that crude citation indices and authorship positions are almost totally orthogonal. We also show for each researcher the distribution of their papers across 4 main levels (basic-to-applied) of research. We discuss technical issues, limitations and caveats, comparisons against other lists of highly-cited researchers, and potential uses of this resource.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Method and construction of database
  5. Limitations and caveats
  6. Comparison with other lists of highly cited scientists
  7. Potential uses
  8. References

The world of modern science has become increasingly competitive in recent years. Literature-based metrics are playing a greater role in decision-making than in the past [1]. Many researchers are highly aware of their so-called status, and check diverse metrics related to the impact of their work on a regular basis. The differing dimensions of impact and reasons for citing are receiving renewed discussion and analysis [2-6]. Although citation counts and related metrics (e.g. journal impact factor, h-index for individual researchers) are typically considered as proxy for impact [7], the nature of that impact is rarely, if ever, specified.

It is within this context of creating a better understanding of impact(s) that we have created a list of highly influential biomedical researchers. Ranking of scientists is explicitly not the main purpose of this list. Rather, we wanted to identify a pool of researchers who have had sustained success in highly influential work and who would thus presumably have substantial insight into differing features that could be associated with high impact. This list is being used in an ongoing survey where highly cited researchers are asked about the features of their most-cited articles. However, the list may be of use for many other purposes, as we discuss below.

Method and construction of database

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Method and construction of database
  5. Limitations and caveats
  6. Comparison with other lists of highly cited scientists
  7. Potential uses
  8. References

We created a list of 400 highly influential biomedical scientists using an XML copy of the entire Scopus database obtained from Elsevier in June 2012. Scopus data contain author identifiers for each individual researcher (http://www.info.sciverse.com/scopus/scopus-in-detail/tools/authoridentifier). We used these Scopus author identifiers rather than attempting to solve the author identity or disambiguation problem [8] independently. Scopus author identifiers do suffer to some extent from the two main problems associated with the author identity problem – polysemy (multiple authors merged in a single identifier) and synonymy (multiple identifiers for a single author). Based on our experience, as many as 10% of prolific authors have more than one Scopus author identifier (unpublished observation). However, in the majority of these cases, the papers are split between one very large profile that is weighted towards older publications and one that is much smaller containing a few newer publications. Thus, few cases of synonymy have a large or deleterious effect on metrics. Polysemy occurs far less often, but is much more problematic from a metrics point of view because the works of multiple authors are counted together. Polysemy is most often associated with common names. Many of the cases are easy to identify due to an unnaturally large number of papers associated with an author identifier.

The method we used to identify highly influential researchers assumes that the Scopus author identifiers have been correctly assigned to individual papers, and that each Scopus author profile contains only papers authored by that researcher. The method used was as follows. For each of the 15 153 100 Scopus author identifiers:

  1. The number of articles published between 1996–2011, along with all citations to those articles as of the end of 2011, was counted.
  2. These articles and citations to them were used to calculate an h-index [9] as of the end of 2011.
  3. Using a local copy of the PubMed database covering the same time period, and for which we had previously linked Scopus records with PubMed records [10], we determined the fraction of publications from (1) that also appear in PubMed.

Of the over 15 million author identifiers, 149 655 (corresponding to 1% of the total) had an h-index of at least 20. These authors were ranked by total citation counts and by h-index. The number of authors with an h-index of at least 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80, was 45 752; 15 385; 5185; 1773; 717, and 281, respectively. We focused on those authors who were ranked in the top 400 by either h-index or by total citation count, that is, those that had either h-index of at least 76 or total citation count of at least 25 142. This resulted in a list of 532 authors. 268 authors were ranked in the top 400 using both metrics, while 264 were ranked in the top 400 using one metric or the other.

Sorting of the 532 researchers was accomplished by first normalizing their total citation counts and h-index values to the top such values (100 939 citations for Shizuo Akira; h-index of 156 for Walter Willett), and then averaging these two normalized values. There are many ways of measuring impact. Rather than choosing a single value upon which to sort, we chose to include both total citation counts and h-index in our process.

There are obviously highly influential researchers across all scientific fields. We chose to generate a focused list of 400 researchers who publish primarily in biomedicine. Upon inspection, we found that all highly cited researchers with at least 80% of their publications linked to PubMed could be clearly classified as core biomedical researchers. In addition, for those with PubMed linked fractions between 60–80%, roughly half could be considered as core biomedical researchers while the rest have a focus outside biomedicine. The proportion of PubMed linkage of the articles of these authors was apparently lower than the true values, because of potential inaccuracies in the linkage process or uneven coverage in one source or the other. For these cases, biomedical researchers were definitively separated from nonbiomedical researchers by inspection of Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms associated with their work and the journals in which they mainly publish. Those with PubMed fractions below 60% were clearly nonbiomedical researchers.

The disposition of the 532 authors was as follows. The top 407 core biomedical researchers (seven deceased, 400 living) form our list of highly influential biomedical researchers. These are listed in Table 1 along with numbers of articles, total citation counts, h-index and the normalized score. Institutions in Table 1 are best estimates of the authors' primary affiliations, but may not be completely accurate due to mobility or joint appointments. Table 2 lists the 62 nonbiomedical researchers whose normalized score is higher than the lowest normalized score of the researchers listed in Table 1. These authors would have appeared on the list if we were making no distinction between biomedical and nonbiomedical subject areas.

Table 1. Highly influential biomedical researchers (Scopus 1996–2011)
ResearcherInstitutionMain Journal#papers#citeshscore#FS100#L100#M100AAS
  1. #papers: number of papers in 1996–2011; #cites: number of total citations of papers published in 1996–2011 as of end-2011; H: Hirsch h-index; Score: normalized score; #FS100: number of papers with at least 100 citations authored as single or first author; #L100: number of papers with at least 100 citations authored as last author; #M100: number of papers with at least 100 citations authored as middle author; AAS: authorship-adjusted score.

  2. a

    Some errors noted for the respective Scopus author identifier, based on communication from the author.

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Akira, ShizuoOsaka UniversityJournal of Immunology91510 09391530·99015921190·469
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Allis, C. DavidRockefeller UniversityCell22139 449980·510146490·249
Alnemri, Emad S.Thomas Jefferson UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry13724 523770·368222360·147
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Altman, Douglas G.University of OxfordBritish Medical Journal47433 049860·4391131330·246
Altshuler, DavidHarvard UniversityNature Genetics20435 366840·444521510·150
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Anderson, Kenneth C.Harvard UniversityBlood77337 405960·493069240·366
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Aravind, L.US NIHNucleic Acids Research26330 970840·4232514290·242
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Baker, DavidMarquette UniversityJournal of Molecular Biology39223 191830·381444160·286
Banchereau, JacquesBaylor Institute for Immunology ResearchJournal of Experimental Medicine26132 867820·426822370·191
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Bluestone, Jeffrey A.University of California at San FranciscoJournal of Immunology26221 905780·359538210·241
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Braunwald, EugeneHarvard UniversityJournal of the American College of Cardiology51556 3061090·628982260·489
Breedveld, Ferdinand C.Leiden UniversityAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases42325 391760·36941480·035
Brennan, Murray F.Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterAnnals of Surgical Oncology47125 388840·395233340·200
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Brooks, David J.Imperial College LondonBrain33820 502780·352024360·141
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Cannon, Christopher P.Harvard UniversityAmerican Journal of Cardiology60930 710810·412144500·109
Cantley, Lewis C.Harvard UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry27838 0751010·512242570·223
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Carmeliet, PeterKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenJournal of Clinical Investigation46438 240880·4712323330·275
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Chambon, PierreUniversite de StrasbourgDevelopment41031 519990·473126720·129
Charney, Dennis S.Mount Sinai School of MedicineBiological Psychiatry37625 079880·406535360·214
Chrousos, George P.University of AthensJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism63728 746860·418542260·269
Clarke, MikeaQueen's University BelfastLancet32529 503650·354412300·123
Clevers, HansUtrecht UniversityCell27331 626820·419355210·308
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Colditz, Graham A.Washington University St. LouisCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention72560 9621320·7258441170·223
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Collins, Francis S.US NIHNature Genetics50463 9721070·6601231730·245
Collins, RoryUniversity of OxfordLancet20141 715630·40966390·096
Colombo, AntonioUniversita Vita-Salute San RaffaeleCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions63229 351840·415533350·216
Cook, Deborah J.McMaster UniversityCritical Care Medicine48129 612860·422910540·110
Cooper, CyrusUniversity of SouthamptonOsteoporosis International63024 663820·385718340·163
Copeland, Neal G.Houston MethodistGenomics43029 695920·442113700·074
Cordon-Cardo, CarlosMount Sinai School of MedicineClinical Cancer Research33927 297840·404212570·080
Corey, LawrenceUniversity of WashingtonJournal of Infectious Diseases42923 236870·394334330·208
Cortes, JorgeUniversity of California at San DiegoCancer68325 045810·38476480·082
Cox, Nancy J.US CDCAmerican Journal of Human Genetics37130 723840·421417570·113
Croce, Carlo M.Ohio State UniversityCancer Research53342 3041040·543444610·239
Cummings, Jeffrey L.Cleveland Clinic FoundationNeurology41627 099830·4001218450·160
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D'Agostino, Ralph B.Boston UniversityCirculation40538 148970·500413760·091
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De Clercq, ErikKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenJournal of Medicinal Chemistry121534 184860·4452216300·249
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Devereux, Richard B.Cornell UniversityHypertension50626 782730·367715310·152
Di Marzo, VincenzoCNR, ItalyBritish Journal of Pharmacology41024 185820·3831631180·277
Dickson, Dennis W.Mayo ClinicNeurology48129 615860·42268540·087
Dietz, William H.US CDCPediatrics16028 958610·339822130·236
Dimmeler, StefanieUniversity of FrankfurtCirculation Research30830 558940·4531850200·350
Dinarello, Charles A.University of Colorado Health Sciences CenterJournal of Immunology37323 324780·3662117260·217
Dixit, Vishva M.Genentech IncorporatedJournal of Biological Chemistry17834 069820·432151240·295
Dobson, Christopher M.University of CambridgeJournal of Molecular Biology39827 923820·401834260·248
Dolan, Raymond J.University College LondonNeuroImage39533 8001020·494685170·417
Dougados, MaximeUniversite Paris 5Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases54521 471760·350512370·110
Druker, Brian J.Oregon Health and Science UniversityBlood27434 451760·414917320·186
Durbin, RichardWellcome Trust Sanger InstituteNucleic Acids Research11829 940590·337010360·073
Easton, Douglas F.University of CambridgeNature Genetics41731 935820·421520460·148
Egger, MatthiasUniversity of BernBritish Medical Journal44428 142750·3801414330·174
Eisen, Michael B.University of California at BerkeleyGenome Biology10732 960500·32423250·054
Elledge, Stephen J.Harvard UniversityGenes and Development19530 511860·427147300·263
Ellis, Lee M.MD Anderson Cancer CenterCancer Research30518 544760·335624250·183
Emery, PaulUniversity of LeedsAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases65730 096820·412616460·133
Eng, CharisCleveland Clinic FoundationJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism38020 202800·356933170·254
Esteller, ManelL'Hospitalet de LlobregatCancer Research31124 473790·3742613240·232
Evans, Alan C.McGill UniversityNeuroImage41526 005890·414045340·236
Evans, Ronald M.Salk Institute for Biological StudiesGenes and Development23734 544960·479155370·288
Faraone, Stephen V.SUNY Upstate Medical UniversityAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics73932 388930·4591714530·169
Ferrara, NapoleoneGenentech IncorporatedJournal of Biological Chemistry20140 117880·4812327290·304
Fischer, AlainINSERMBlood46425 265790·378110470·072
Flavell, Richard A.Yale UniversityJournal of Immunology71663 6861330·742083870·362
Flegal, Katherine M.US CDCAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition11939 164490·35199230·154
Flier, Jeffrey S.Harvard UniversityEndocrinology14728 939830·409539330·234
Folkman, JudahDECEASED (Harvard University)Cancer Research23431 292780·4051823260·248
Folsom, Aaron R.University of MinnesotaAmerican Journal of Epidemiology57332 240880·4421417500·169
Ford, Earl S.US CDCDiabetes Care28725 979700·353283250·195
Frackowiak, Richard S. J.University of LausanneNeuroImage27325 379920·421023670·107
Franceschi, SilviaInternational Agency for Research on CancerInternational Journal of Cancer76824 825760·367913260·168
Fraser, Claire M.University of Maryland School of MedicineTrends in Microbiology14530 637710·379228340·178
Friston, Karl J.University College LondonNeuroImage47440 9911000·5242239390·319
Frith, Christopher D.University of AarhusNeuroImage37132 2661030·490743560·231
Froguel, PhilippeImperial College LondonDiabetes42226 602750·372023300·162
Fruchart, Jean-CharlesFondation Coeur et ArteresJournal of Biological Chemistry39326 891820·39656600·061
Furberg, Curt D.Wake Forest UniversityCirculation30725 824750·368418330·147
Fuster, ValentinMount Sinai HospitalCirculation58036 142970·4901214680·136
Gage, Fred H.Salk Institute for Biological StudiesJournal of Neuroscience34149 2831050·581572320·410
Gazdar, Adi F.University of Texas SouthwesternCancer Research39825 640830·393328370·179
Genant, Harry K.University of California at San FranciscoOsteoporosis International38728 788790·396515410·130
Gerstein, MarkYale UniversityGenome Research39626 961790·387525320·187
Gibbons, Raymond J.Mayo ClinicJournal of the American College of Cardiology29225 405720·357100510·058
Gibbs, Richard A.Baylor College of MedicineGenome Research28339 431610·39125360·064
Gilliland, D. GaryMerckBlood22920 764800·359325390·150
Giovannucci, EdwardHarvard UniversityCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention63436 6961020·5092320600·212
Glass, Christopher K.University of California at San DiegoCell20831 227820·418525430·172
Goldberg, Alfred L.Harvard UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry15519 049770·341337170·239
Golub, Todd R.Broad InstituteCancer Cell17240 526770·448218450·138
Gonzalez, Frank J.US NIH (NCI)Journal of Biological Chemistry57931 844900·446321590·129
Gores, Gregory J.Mayo ClinicHepatology38618 979780·344140170·243
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Greenberg, Michael E.Harvard UniversityNeuron13533 402760·409448130·327
Greengard, PaulRockefeller UniversityJournal of Neuroscience34523 405830·382226380·162
Grobbee, Diederick E.Utrecht UniversityNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde92238 653950·496022650·125
Grundy, Scott M.University of Texas SouthwesternCirculation34141 893930·5063212460·247
Guralnik, Jack M.University of Maryland School of MedicineJournal of the American Geriatrics Society54323 254780·365415460·107
Gustafsson, Jan-ÅkeUniversity of HoustonJournal of Biological Chemistry67244 613950·525241450·257
Guyatt, Gordon H.McMaster UniversityJournal of Clinical Epidemiology73631 472960·4641231500·214
Gygi, Steven P.Harvard UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry27229 429820·409623440·162
Haffner, Steven M.Baylor College of MedicineDiabetes Care41334 609890·4572125380·250
Hallett, MarkUS NIH (NINDS)Neurology55027 250920·430454290·287
Halliwell, BarryNational University of SingaporeFree Radical Biology and Medicine31421 787760·3522616150·259
Hannon, Gregory J.Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryGenes and Development21733 783890·453237420·218
Hardy, JohnUniversity College LondonMovement Disorders47234 308800·42685510·087
Harris, Adrian L.University of OxfordBritish Journal of Cancer64338 604980·505243480·245
Harris, Curtis C.US NIH (NCI)Cancer Research28019 940770·346239140·258
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Haussler, DavidUniversity of California at Santa CruzGenome Research15730 846620·352017300·127
Hayashizaki, YoshihideRikenGenome Research48930 611610·347013280·110
Hayden, Michael R.University of British ColumbiaHuman Molecular Genetics41021 649780·357030310·176
Hennekens, Charles H.Florida Atlantic UniversityCirculation37548 1001020·565632650·209
Herman, James G.Johns Hopkins UniversityCancer Research25635 757920·472633460·217
Hicklin, Daniel J.MerckCancer Research17922 134770·35626480·051
Hodges, John R.University of New South WalesBrain36819 081800·351729160·243
Hofman, AlbertErasmus University RotterdamStroke114653 2851180·6423131350·068
Holgate, Stephen T.University of SouthamptonJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology64127 448840·4051512380·168
Holman, Rury R.University of OxfordDiabetologia18026 788590·322620230·171
Holmes, David R.Mayo ClinicJournal of the American College of Cardiology74528 049860·415515400·138
Holsboer, FlorianMax Planck Institute of PsychiatryJournal of Psychiatric Research52923 660790·370521340·161
Holst, Jens J.University of CopenhagenJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism60425 502850·399623410·165
Honjo, TasukuKyoto UniversityJournal of Experimental Medicine27522 127770·356338210·236
Hood, LeroyInstitute for Systems BiologyGenome Research27229 070710·372417350·139
Hori, MasatsuguOsaka Medical CenterCirculation76027 584740·374023270·172
Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.MD Anderson Cancer CenterJournal of Clinical Oncology71528 642880·424723430·174
Howard, Barbara V.MedStar Health Research InstituteCirculation34727 249680·35359320·107
Hruban, Ralph H.Johns Hopkins UniversityCancer Research48432 988940·465619670·126
Hu, Frank B.Harvard UniversityAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition61738 6251040·5252941380·340
Huber, RobertMax Planck Institute for BiochemistryJournal of Molecular Biology44722 470770·35819380·075
Hunter, David J.Harvard UniversityCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention78639 716970·5081025610·185
Hunter, TonySalk Institute for Biological StudiesJournal of Biological Chemistry20925 890830·394533360·202
Hyman, Bradley T.Harvard UniversityJournal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology41627 948920·433233490·181
Ioannidis, John P. A.Stanford UniversityJournal of Clinical Epidemiology57923 639780·3672611270·212
Isner, Jeffrey M.DECEASED (Tufts University)Circulation19130 667820·415644250·276
Jacks, TylerMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyGenes and Development20723 236800·372244200·259
Jacobs, Alice K.Boston UniversityCirculation22627 109780·38421620·018
Jaenisch, RudolfMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCell29936 8481000·503370280·364
Jaffe, Elaine S.US NIH (NCI)Blood33423 680780·36746510·060
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Jolesz, Ferenc A.Harvard UniversityJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging37619 415780·346120370·125
Jones, Ronald N.JMI LaboratoriesDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease75024 785770·370912310·149
Kadowaki, TakashiUniversity of TokyoNippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine59028 468800·397431300·214
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Kaibuchi, KozoNagoya UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry29722 245780·360237280·210
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Kantarjian, HagopMD Anderson Cancer CenterCancer108651 4581030·5852327570·273
Karin, MichaelUniversity of California at San DiegoCell33564 6191250·7212089310·561
Kastelein, John J. P.University of AmsterdamAtherosclerosis59125 792760·371417390·130
Keating, Michael J.MD Anderson Cancer CenterBlood49224 218770·367511370·111
Kendler, Kenneth S.Virginia Commonwealth UniversityPsychological Medicine53823 992840·3883621110·325
Kessler, Ronald C.Harvard UniversityPsychological Medicine46349 0951100·5965235370·418
Kinzler, Kenneth W.Johns Hopkins UniversityCancer Research23258 8551050·628423820·156
Kishimoto, TadamitsuOsaka UniversityBlood32924 156880·402230440·169
Klein, RonaldUniversity of WisconsinOphthalmology64523 759840·387147430·127
Koob, George F.Scripps Research InstitutePsychopharmacology35622 135770·3562120200·240
Koonin, Eugene V.US NIHBiology Direct49349 2871120·6031759430·385
Korsmeyer, Stanley J.DECEASED (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)Journal of Biological Chemistry19741 891970·518256340·327
Krammer, Peter H.German Cancer Research CenterCell Death and Differentiation30127 243770·382320380·144
Kroemer, GuidoUniversite Paris 5Cell Death and Differentiation57655 4311190·65613105250·541
Krumholz, Harlan M.Yale UniversityCirculation67334 174980·4831244380·288
Kucherlapati, RajuHarvard UniversityCancer Research20627 100620·33307350·055
Kuller, Lewis H.University of PittsburghAmerican Journal of Epidemiology63632 615910·453619590·135
Kupfer, David J.University of PittsburghAmerican Journal of Psychiatry39520 221760·344329220·204
Laakso, MarkkuUniversity of Eastern FinlandDiabetes Care48328 397770·387617330·159
Lander, Eric S.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyNature Genetics33294 9501270·8773441020·277
Lang, Anthony E.University of TorontoMovement Disorders48624 327780·371514400·119
Langer, RobertMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyBiomaterials77146 0951120·587675550·350
Lanier, Lewis L.University of California at San FranciscoJournal of Immunology23522 035810·3691423310·201
Lanzavecchia, AntonioInstitute for Research in BiomedicineEuropean Journal of Immunology16831 279740·392929270·229
Lee, Virginia M.-Y.University of PennsylvaniaJournal of Neuroscience48538 7931030·522238680·193
Lefkowitz, Robert J.Duke UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry28731 6211000·477756370·301
Lehrach, HansMax Planck Institute for Molecular GeneticsGenomics40028 235670·35506360·051
Leon, Martin B.Columbia UniversityAmerican Journal of Cardiology56133 719890·452337370·235
Levey, Andrew S.Tufts UniversityAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases30035 188790·4281121310·217
Levine, Arnold J.Institute for Advanced StudiesCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention20632 889700·387435190·260
Levy, DanielUS NIH (NHLBI)Circulation41544 4021040·553449540·274
Libby, PeterHarvard UniversityCirculation41347 2061130·5961952550·336
Lieberman, Jeffrey A.Columbia UniversityAmerican Journal of Psychiatry44824 834810·3831232190·267
Liotta, Lance A.George Mason UniversityCancer Research36925 721810·387816430·139
Lipman, David J.US NIHNucleic Acids Research5441 821380·32903250·035
Lipton, Richard B.Yeshiva UniversityHeadache48923 621810·3771519310·197
Lisanti, Michael P.Thomas Jefferson UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry37025 271880·407057190·305
Littman, Dan R.New York UniversityJournal of Experimental Medicine18426 533780·381225410·151
Liu, Yong-JunBaylor Institute for Immunology ResearchJournal of Experimental Medicine17625 683700·352827190·228
Mak, Tak W.University of TorontoJournal of Immunology48843 4471060·555150660·242
Mancia, GiuseppeUniversity of MilanJournal of Hypertension73032 426770·4071417320·200
Mann, MatthiasMax Planck Institute for BiochemistryMolecular and Cellular Proteomics45263 5271220·706566680·360
Manns, Michael P.Hannover Medical SchoolHepatology106933 022820·426414370·140
Manson, Joann E.Harvard UniversityJournal of the American Medical Association71064 3001340·7487371320·187
Mantovani, AlbertoUniversity of MilanJournal of Immunology59333 040910·4551234330·265
Marmot, MichaelUniversity College LondonJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health55321 251780·3551129120·273
Marra, Marco A.British Columbia Cancer AgencyGenome Research21928 156600·332210240·111
Masliah, EliezerUniversity of California at San DiegoJournal of Neuroscience48523 447800·3731118350·169
Massague, JoanMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterJournal of Biological Chemistry16335 069940·4751256210·363
Matsuzawa, YujiSumitomo HospitalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications60146 768960·539742390·300
Mattson, Mark P.US NIH (NIA)Journal of Neurochemistry68942 3541110·5663480150·500
McEwen, Bruce S.Rockefeller UniversityBrain Research43135 597990·4942733390·299
McMahon, Andrew P.University of Southern CaliforniaDevelopment22326 620920·427242430·216
McMichael, Andrew J.University of OxfordEuropean Journal of Immunology33925 540800·383720400·154
McMurray, John J. V.University of GlasgowEuropean Journal of Heart Failure58530 200810·409617410·147
Medzhitov, RuslanYale UniversityNature Immunology15534 925740·4101338130·327
Meijer, Chris J. L. M.Vrije UniversiteitInternational Journal of Cancer60634 452830·437022410·152
Melton III, L. JosephMayo ClinicOsteoporosis International38126 800880·415934330·235
Miller, David H.University College LondonNeurology46726 155820·392727330·199
Miller, WebbPennsylvania State UniversityGenome Research17651 184580·439010250·126
Mills, Gordon B.MD Anderson Cancer CenterCancer Research37821 240770·352213420·093
Minna, John D.University of Texas SouthwesternCancer Research38422 511850·384119470·115
Moffitt, Terrie E.Duke UniversityArchives of General Psychiatry20620 339760·344810350·117
Moher, DavidOttawa HospitalJournal of Clinical Epidemiology35625 369660·3371614200·202
Murray, Robin M.King's College LondonBritish Journal of Psychiatry63725 490780·376123340·156
Nagai, RyozoUniversity of TokyoJournal of Biological Chemistry84230 172770·396010430·075
Narod, Steven A.University of TorontoBreast Cancer Research and Treatment49922 549760·355615330·138
Narumiya, ShuhKyoto UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry31725 077780·374528300·196
Nemeroff, Charles B.University of MiamiBiological Psychiatry40023 507780·3661131230·237
Nestler, Eric J.Mount Sinai School of MedicineJournal of Neuroscience31528 100890·4241547180·329
Nicoll, Roger A.University of California at San FranciscoNeuron16818 217760·334331250·192
Norton, LarryMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterJournal of Clinical Oncology21327 866650·346114360·102
Nunez, GabrielUniversity of MichiganJournal of Biological Chemistry22823 505790·370140200·248
O'Brien, SusanMD Anderson Cancer CenterCancer55724 533760·36540520·026
Okumura, KoJuntendo UniversityJournal of Immunology63623 371790·369222360·148
Olson, Eric N.University of Texas SouthwesternDevelopmental Biology44636 7881070·525778310·385
Oparil, SuzanneUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBlood Pressure36630 355550·32743260·069
Orkin, Stuart H.Harvard UniversityBlood23819 687840·367342240·239
Osterhaus, Albertus D. M. E.Erasmus University RotterdamVaccine69527 303740·372019330·136
Owen, Michael J.Cardiff UniversityAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics - Neuropsychiatric Genetics63228 067860·415323460·150
Pandolfi, Pier PaoloHarvard UniversityOncogene29424 397850·393141260·243
Paulsen, Ian T.Macquarie UniversityJournal of Bacteriology16425 576730·361111510·069
Pawson, TonyMount Sinai Hospital, TorontoMolecular and Cellular Biology24722 486820·374821340·172
Peltonen, LeenaDECEASED (University of Helsinki)Nature Genetics58226 750850·405321490·133
Penninger, Josef M.Austrian Academy of SciencesJournal of Immunology34229 989810·408332330·210
Petersen, Ronald C.Mayo ClinicNeurology40928 458770·3881117320·181
Peterson, Eric D.Duke UniversityAmerican Heart Journal69822 896770·360613340·129
Peto, Richard*University of OxfordLancet22134 930610·369622220·206
Pfaller, Michael A.University of IowaJournal of Clinical Microbiology50227 074860·4103512250·267
Pfeffer, Marc A.Harvard UniversityCirculation34140 572890·486619540·154
Pols, Huibert A. P.Erasmus University RotterdamJournal of Bone and Mineral Research36021 975800·365114480·087
Ponting, Chris P.University of OxfordGenome Research20429 557660·358168230·183
Popma, Jeffrey J.Harvard UniversityAmerican Journal of Cardiology33729 601780·39723600·031
Poynard, ThierryUniversite Paris 6Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique36926 015760·3721721230·232
Priori, Silvia G.New York UniversityCirculation32324 925780·373173470·111
Prusiner, Stanley B.University of California at San FranciscoJournal of Molecular Biology24322 129790·363622320·169
Rajewsky, KlausHarvard UniversityJournal of Experimental Medicine23420 213800·357326390·152
Raoult, DidierUniversite de la MediterraneeEmerging Infectious Diseases125229 091780·394114270·348
Reed, John C.Roche Pharma ResearchJournal of Biological Chemistry75576 1851310·7972063920·378
Reiser, MaximilianUniversity of MunichRadiologe123725 834720·359018200·170
Reiter, Russel J.University of Texas Health Science CenterJournal of Pineal Research44521 703760·3511814200·216
Remuzzi, GiuseppeLaboratori Negri BergamoJournal of the American Society of Nephrology68731 651820·4201037220·286
Richman, Douglas D.University of California at San DiegoJournal of Virology28327 577800·393429350·191
Ridker, Paul M.Harvard UniversityCirculation58763 0991120·6724745340·490
Rifai, NaderHarvard UniversityClinical Chemistry36741 460930·503610700·094
Rimm, Eric B.Harvard UniversityAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition41533 7271020·494515830·096
Robbins, Trevor W.University of CambridgePsychopharmacology48035 0321040·507956430·305
Rosen, Bruce R.Harvard UniversityNeuroImage24523 528820·379121490·118
Rosenberg, Steven A.US NIH (NCI)Journal of Immunotherapy48538 0401040·5221842490·287
Rosenfeld, Michael G.University of California at San DiegoCell22330 548900·440249320·270
Rubenstein, John L. R.University of California at San FranciscoDevelopment19217 899760·332434270·194
Rubin, Gerald M.Howard Hughes Medical InstituteGenome biology12525 548700·351221290·155
Rush, A. JohnNational University of SingaporeJournal of Clinical Psychiatry45323 041770·3611211330·148
Rutgeerts, PaulKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenInflammatory Bowel Diseases52131 303840·424933310·244
Rutter, MichaelKing's College LondonJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines25317 016790·3371816240·198
Salvesen, Guy S.Sanford-Burnham Medical Research InstituteJournal of Biological Chemistry18826 386730·365424350·162
Salzberg, Steven L.Johns Hopkins UniversityGenome Biology18233 745730·401514430·123
Sandborn, William J.University of California at San DiegoGastroenterology40622 848820·3762223230·249
Sawyers, Charles L.Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterCancer Cell17029 490730·380627270·209
Scardino, Peter T.Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterJournal of Urology42719 543760·340019300·132
Scherer, Stephen W.Centre for Applied GenomicsGenomics47341 573840·475315530·120
Schomig, AlbertTechnische Universitat MunchenJournal of the American College of Cardiology56025 121790·378441180·270
Schreiber, StefanChristian-Albrechts-UniversitätGut62524 816770·370814380·136
Schreiber, Stuart L.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyJournal of the American Chemical Society26727 729840·407450200·297
Schulten, KlausUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignBiophysical Journal33425 505700·35103460·298
Schultz, Peter G.Scripps Research InstituteJournal of the American Chemical Society38523 786820·381028280·190
Schwartz, JoelHarvard UniversityEnvironmental Health Perspectives40919 148760·3381211290·150
Schwartz, Michael W.*University of WashingtonDiabetes40328 236880·4221347180·325
Selkoe, Dennis J.Harvard UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry24640 915970·5142142300·348
Semenza, Gregg L.Johns Hopkins UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry25734 870960·4803034280·334
Serruys, Patrick W.Erasmus University RotterdamCirculation113543 076990·5311237490·265
Sette, AlessandroLa Jolla Institute for Allergy and ImmunologyJournal of Immunology36518 219770·337213360·099
Shay, Jerry W.University of Texas SouthwesternCancer Research29223 550790·3701022280·197
Sheng, MorganMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyNeuron17718 860760·337937180·242
Shimizu, NobuyoshiKeio UniversityBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications59530 266660·36109320·079
Shinozaki, KazuoRikenPlant and Cell Physiology37724 409820·384631270·222
Shulman, Gerald I.Yale UniversityDiabetes28629 243850·417148270·269
Sidransky, DavidJohns Hopkins UniversityCancer Research39226 891840·402339250·252
Silman, Alan J.Arthritis Research UKAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases44421 920840·378124340·160
Smith, Sidney C.University of North CarolinaCirculation33447 3061030·564723730·164
Smith, George DaveyUniversity of BristolBritish Medical Journal72529 936770·395817280·186
Smith, Mark A.DECEASED (Case Western)Journal of Alzheimer's Disease66227 956810·398925280·218
Snyder, Solomon H.Johns Hopkins UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry27421 992840·378542210·261
Sonenberg, NahumMcGill UniversityMolecular and Cellular Biology31025 899870·407343340·234
Speizer, Frank E.Harvard UniversityJournal of the American Medical Association22929 021940·445010770·051
Spiegelman, Bruce M.Harvard UniversityNovartis Foundation Symposium21237 789950·492562270·350
Spiegelman, DonnaHarvard UniversityAmerican Journal of Epidemiology42624 237810·38012620·018
Springer, Timothy A.Harvard UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry22520 539770·349236190·232
Stampfer, Meir J.Harvard UniversityCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention70473 6731380·8073331530·154
Steinman, Ralph M.DECEASED (Rockefeller University)Journal of Experimental Medicine24239 233910·4861532380·269
Stone, Gregg W.Columbia UniversityAmerican Journal of Cardiology59326 736800·389285290·207
Storb, RainerUniversity of WashingtonBlood46121 912780·359315440·104
Strieter, Robert M.University of VirginiaJournal of Immunology38922 624840·381426400·163
Sudhof, Thomas C.Stanford UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry31026 766900·421646290·270
Szabo, CsabaUniversity of Texas Medical BranchShock55223 800780·3681629150·276
Takeda, KiyoshiOsaka UniversityJournal of Immunology29243 547890·501122670·087
Takeuchi, OsamuOsaka UniversityJournal of Immunology23130 690730·386121480·082
Talley, Nicholas J.University of NewcastleAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology71824 704830·3881618230·232
Tempst, PaulMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterJournal of Biological Chemistry24228 635950·44605820·026
Tessier-Lavigne, MarcRockefeller UniversityNeuron19522 475820·374130420·159
Thase, Michael E.University of PennsylvaniaJournal of Clinical Psychiatry50523 264780·365107430·103
Thompson, Alan J.University College LondonMultiple Sclerosis45125 142790·378216360·126
Thompson, Craig B.Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterJournal of Immunology28636 3501080·526174400·343
Thun, Michael J.American Cancer SocietyCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention39259 460790·548530290·300
Tibshirani, RobertStanford UniversityBiostatistics17831 660560·336512200·155
Topol, Eric J.Scripps Research InstituteCirculation81455 9031160·6491577510·417
Tracy, Russell P.University of VermontCirculation34132 637850·434417560·118
Trojanowski, John Q.University of PennsylvaniaActa Neuropathologica58043 7931070·560334830·173
Tschopp, JürgDECEASED (University of Lausanne)Journal of Immunology27836 0351020·505361390·314
Tsien, Roger Y.University of California at San DiegoJournal of Biological Chemistry15928 335790·394437300·227
Tuomilehto, JaakkoUniversity of HelsinkiDiabetes Care75251 6581030·586824790·169
Tuschl, ThomasRockefeller UniversityRNA10529 271610·341426240·189
Van De Werf, FransKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenEuropean Heart Journal46825 765760·371712390·122
Verkman, Alan S.University of California at San FranciscoJournal of Biological Chemistry37019 883760·34263870·295
Verweij, JaapErasmus University RotterdamEuropean Journal of Cancer47126 107670·344211300·104
Vincent, Jean-LouisUniversite Libre de BruxellesCritical Care Medicine72831 536770·4031625230·258
Virmani, RenuCVPath Institute, Inc.Circulation44825 557770·3731133240·242
Vogelstein, BertJohns Hopkins UniversityCancer Research25662 8081080·657346650·283
Volkow, Nora D.US NIH (NIDA)Synapse44821 038780·354365150·259
Walker, Bruce D.Howard Hughes Medical InstituteJournal of Virology42127 250840·404229380·182
Walsh, Thomas J.Cornell UniversityAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy52728 878810·4031823230·258
Watkins, Simon C.University of PittsburghJournal of Immunology43920 579820·36512510·020
Webster, Robert G.St. Jude Children Research HospitalJournal of Virology36521 306790·359625300·182
Wedel, HansNordic School of Public HealthEuropean Heart Journal16930 025550·325012290·095
Weinberg, Robert A.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCell16635 681830·443358140·360
Weinberger, Daniel R.US NIH (NIMH)Biological Psychiatry50834 086940·470558250·337
Weiss, Scott T.Harvard UniversityAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine45720 295800·357117360·119
Weissenbach, JeanGenoscopeHuman Molecular Genetics26037 989720·41905470·040
Weissleder, RalphHarvard UniversityBioconjugate Chemistry58333 113890·4491238310·277
Weissman, Irving L.Stanford UniversityBlood34034 864890·458347320·279
Wells, George A.University of OttawaJournal of Rheumatology48520 883790·357210470·073
Werb, ZenaUniversity of California at San FranciscoDevelopment23230 962830·419437300·242
White, Harvey D.Auckland City HospitalEuropean Heart Journal59630 472780·401916420·150
White, Nicholas J.University of OxfordTransactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene66825 253780·3751319240·214
White, OwenUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineNucleic Acids Research12030 328690·37115510·039
Wichmann, H.-ErichHelmholtz Zentrum MünchenNature Genetics61822 715770·35917470·052
Willett, Walter C.Harvard UniversityAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition114288 3861560·9388791610·329
Willson, Timothy M.GlaxoSmithKlineJournal of Medicinal Chemistry16429 140800·401514490·112
Wilson, James M.University of PennsylvaniaHuman Gene Therapy43523 611860·393247210·275
Wilson, Peter W. F.Emory UniversityCirculation50439 7361040·530922790·149
Wilson, Richard K.Washington University St. LouisGenome Research13733 836580·35406310·057
Winblad, BengtKarolinska InstitutetInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry63424 911780·373510370·108
Wittchen, Hans-UlrichTechnische Universitat DresdenInternational Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research42918 381760·3351212270·157
Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.Erasmus University RotterdamStroke47221 973790·362021400·125
Wolmark, NormanAllegheny General HospitalJournal of Clinical Oncology17028 612650·350329190·220
Yagita, HideoJuntendo UniversityJournal of Immunology47323 341840·38518560·053
Yamamoto, MasayukiTohoku UniversityJournal of Biological Chemistry71728 311830·406026370·168
Yancopoulos, George D.Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Cell24734 335940·471225650·138
Yates III, John R.Scripps Research InstituteAnalytical Chemistry66741 5761020·533738610·226
Yazaki, YoshioInternational Medical Center of JapanJournal of Biological Chemistry41520 847830·369016440·098
Yeo, Charles J.Thomas Jefferson UniversityJournal of Gastrointestinal Surgery35824 549840·39166640·062
Yusuf, SalimMcMaster UniversityCirculation63060 4751100·6522254410·424
Zanchetti, AlbertoUniversity of MilanJournal of Hypertension37826 130630·331519120·221
Zeiher, Andreas M.University of FrankfurtCirculation31832 801920·457034520·181
Zimmet, Paul Z.Baker Heart Research InstituteDiabetes Care44326 640640·337125210·151
Table 2. Highly influential researchers with a focus outside biomedicine (Scopus 1996-2011)
ResearcherInstitutionJournal#papers#citeshscore#FS100#L100#M100AAS
  1. Abbreviations as per Table 1.

Alivisatos, A. PaulUniversity of California at BerkeleyNano Letters22545 610870·505657170·398
Antonietti, MarkusMax Planck Institute of Colloids and InterfacesChemistry of Materials45322 468830·377838180·271
Barabasi, Albert-LászlóNortheastern UniversityPhysical Review Letters17337 064670·3981031130·302
Bawendi, Moungi G.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyPhysical Review B22325 008780·374040200·249
Brinkmann, Jonathan V.Apache Point ObservatoryAstronomical Journal31937 5401040·519014920·069
Buchwald, Stephen L.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyJournal of the American Chemical Society28027 886960·44629110·441
Caruso, FrankUniversity of MelbourneLangmuir33722 775780·363223460·328
Cirac, Juan IgnacioMax Planck Institute of Quantum OpticsPhysical Review Letters34523 034770·361616380·132
Corma, AvelinoUniversidad Politecnica de ValenciaJournal of Catalysis69727 360760·379277170·253
Dai, HongjieStanford UniversityJournal of the American Chemical Society23247 567970·547769170·447
Dresselhaus, Mildred S.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyPhysical Review B62131 045840·4231233220·284
Ellis, Richard S.California Institute of TechnologyAstrophysical Journal Letters29229 354830·41145650·050
El-Sayed, Mostafa A.Georgia Institute of TechnologyJournal of Physical Chemistry B27025 850680·34625020·333
Fabian, Andrew C.Institute of AstronomyMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society56620 316780·3511014280·162
Filippenko, Alexei V.University of California at BerkeleyAstrophysical Journal Letters41033 824700·39221410·027
Forrest, Stephen R.University of MichiganApplied Physics Letters42136 148900·468755220·345
Frechet, Jean M. J.University of California at BerkeleyJournal of the American Chemical Society49930 320930·448359230·327
Frenk, Carlos S.University of DurhamMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society23727 510740·37317510·051
Friend, Richard H.University of CambridgeSynthetic Metals51236 277870·459140380·238
Fukugita, MasatakaUniversity of TokyoNuclear Physics B32638 807800·44941690·030
Geim, Andre K.University of ManchesterPhysical Review B17033 560500·326717140·206
Gratzel, MichaelEcole Polytechnique Federale de LausanneJournal of the American Chemical Society51646 6411090·5801177310·429
Grubbs, Robert H.California Institute of TechnologyJournal of the American Chemical Society31430 947820·41635680·366
Gunn, James E.Princeton UniversityAstronomical Journal19128 182830·40611720·011
Hartwig, John F.University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignJournal of the American Chemical Society25520 003810·359104770·319
Hawker, Craig J.University of California at Santa BarbaraMacromolecules36022 013800·3651127300·204
Heeger, Alan J.University of California at Santa BarbaraSynthetic Metals43226 444790·384541160·285
Ivezic, ŽeljkoUniversity of WashingtonAstronomical Journal24527 959870·41762700·043
Jain, Anil K.Michigan State UniversityLecture Notes in Computer Science61625 607730·3612220120·281
Knapp, Gillian R.Princeton UniversityAstronomical Journal18522 254760·35412620·016
Kresse, GeorgUniversity of ViennaPhysical Review B24738 561620·39077150·188
Lieber, Charles M.Harvard UniversityNano Letters24255 7701060·61629990·566
Lupton, Robert H.Princeton UniversityAstronomical Journal19126 451830·39712730·016
Marks, Tobin J.Northwestern UniversityJournal of the American Chemical Society53522 803820·376055100·318
Matyjaszewski, KrzysztofCarnegie Mellon UniversityMacromolecules72841 3571060·5453068100·494
Meijer, E. W. (Bert)Eindhoven University of TechnologyJournal of the American Chemical Society48525 229770·372037140·270
Mirkin, Chad A.Northwestern UniversityJournal of the American Chemical Society43741 590900·494357210·366
Mohwald, HelmuthMax Planck Institute of Colloids and InterfacesLangmuir60223 077770·361040140·267
Mullen, KlausMax Planck Institute for Polymer ResearchJournal of the American Chemical Society108233 757820·430035270·243
Schlegel, David J.Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryAstronomical Journal15329 112730·37812620·017
Schneider, Donald P.Pennsylvania State UniversityAstronomical Journal54339 8771040·53147990·053
Schwartz, Stephen M.Yeshiva UniversityJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry75422 126760·3531110260·158
Smalley, Richard E.DECEASED (Rice University)Chemical Physics Letters19842 029860·484052310·303
Spek, Anthony L.Utrecht UniversityOrganometallics82129 539580·33224130·105
Stanley, H. EugeneBoston UniversityPhysical Review E53824 989770·371243100·303
Stoddart, J. FraserNorthwestern UniversityJournal of the American Chemical Society53232 499900·449337380·230
Strauss, Michael A.Princeton UniversityAstronomical Journal24826 376810·39024630·034
Stucky, Galen D.University of California at Santa BarbaraChemistry of Materials40536 208880·461046300·279
Tanaka, KeijiHokkaido UniversityPolymer Preprints83925 320750·366411360·108
Tokura, YoshinoriUniversity of TokyoPhysical Review B72635 352890·460657160·367
Tour, James M.Rice UniversityJournal of the American Chemical Society36825 654710·355430150·246
Truhlar, Donald G.University of MinnesotaJournal of Chemical Physics48224 567780·37235210·365
Wang, JosephArizona State UniversityElectroanalysis30519 374790·34940240·319
Wang, Zhong LinGeorgia Institute of TechnologyNano Letters48235 057970·4852057170·397
White, Simon D. M.Max Planck Institute for AstrophysicsMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society26330 300760·394025360·161
Whitesides, George M.Harvard UniversityJournal of the American Chemical Society66864 0911230·7128123230·605
Willner, ItamarHebrew University of JerusalemJournal of the American Chemical Society42623 424810·376144060·338
Xia, YounanWashington University St. LouisAdvanced Materials49348 4731150·6091796170·529
Yaghi, Omar M.University of California at Los AngelesJournal of the American Chemical Society16836 705790·43565450·402
Yang, PeidongUniversity of California at BerkeleyNano Letters25844 363960·5271158250·387
York, Donald G.University of ChicagoAstrophysical Journal Letters32129 079850·416055220·297
Zhao, DongyuanFudan UniversityChemistry of Materials43527 229740·372831160·264

The remaining 63 authors are not included in either list for the following reasons: 12 were removed from the list because the numbers of articles associated with those author names, combined with them having common names, made us suspicious that these were cases of polysemy; seven had fewer than three papers cited at least 100 times for which they were first, single or last authors, likely indicating that others were principal investigators on the vast majority of the work associated with their publications; and 44 had normalized scores less than those of the biomedical authors in Table 1.

Tables 1 and 2 also list the dominant specialty journal (excluding the multidisciplinary journals Science, Nature, PNAS and PLoS One) for the articles of each highly cited scientist. This information may offer insight for the main field(s) where each scientist is working. To offer some further information, we have also selected differentiating MeSH terms from their publications. To do this, we first remove a list of the most common terms (e.g. human, male, female, etc.), check terms and geographical terms; after this step, the top remaining terms for each scientists may still be too generic (a common issue with any thesaurus); therefore, we use the following formula to rank MeSH terms: log(1 + n/nptot)*n/nkwd where n = #times the MeSH term occurs (for an author), nptot=number of papers by the author, nkwd = #times the MeSH term occurs across all of PubMed. The formula thus rewards a MeSH term that is dominant for the author, but penalizes that term if it is common. To avoid selecting MeSH terms that are highly specific to the author but represent only a tiny proportion of his/her work, we limit this exercise to MeSH terms that appear in at least 10% of the author's articles. MeSH terms for the researchers of Table 1 appear in the longer online version of Table 1 (http://www.mapofscience.com/?page_id=761) for the whole period 1996–2011 and also limited to 2005–2011. MeSH terms are not provided for the researchers in Table 2, because MeSH coverage of nonbiomedical sciences is relatively sparse and most researchers would not be adequately represented by the minority of their papers indexed also in PubMed.

Limitations and caveats

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Method and construction of database
  5. Limitations and caveats
  6. Comparison with other lists of highly cited scientists
  7. Potential uses
  8. References

Due to the above-mentioned issues associated with the author identity problem, we are well aware that not all of the author records for those listed in Tables 1 and 2 are completely accurate. Scopus author profiles are also subject to change over time as Elsevier improves assignment algorithms and responds to author requests for changes. Despite the lack of total accuracy, the methodology used is sufficient for our purposes of identifying a set of highly influential biomedical authors. By choosing researchers with the highest total citation counts and/or h-indexes, even if some of those researcher profiles contain a few papers from other researchers with the same name, this does not diminish the fact that these are highly influential researchers.

We are also well aware that many researchers have published highly significant works prior to 1996. This is an inherent limitation to Scopus data. However, using this common time window of 1996–2011 reduces the effect of age and offers a more level ground for comparing productivity and impact over a similar period of time. Scientists whose key work was published exclusively or predominantly before 1996 are not captured in our list. Relatively, young scientists may also be at a disadvantage because they may not have reached full productivity by 1996 and very young scientists who started publishing late in the 1996–2011 window are at a major disadvantage. Nevertheless, the selected window captures highly influential scientists with a wide range of ages, most of whom are still highly active and relevant for the current evolution of science. The total citation counts and h-indexes listed in Tables 1 and 2 are of course lower than those that can be calculated from sources that include materials from before 1996, such as Google Scholar or the Web of Science. Table 3 shows comparatively data on the h-index of a sample of highly cited authors from Scopus including papers published before 1996 and Google Scholar – the h-indices have been updated to August 2013. As shown, when all years are considered Scopus h-indices increase modestly, while Google Scholar h-indices can be substantially higher. However, the relative ranking of scientists is not affected substantially (rank correlation coefficients 0·89 for Scopus 1996–2011 vs. Scopus all years, 0·80 for Scopus 1996–2011 vs. Google Scholar, and 0·96 for Scopus all years vs. Google Scholar, P < 0·001 for all).

Table 3. Comparative data on h-index for a sample of highly influential researchers calculated with different databases
Nameh-index per Table 1h-index per Scopus (all years)h-index per Google Scholar
  1. a

    Some problems noted with attribution of papers in the Scopus author identifier (communication with author).

Braunwald, Eugene109142214
Croce, Carlo M. 104130168
Grundy, Scott M.93123154
Ferrara, Napoleone88120139
Mantovani, Alberto91119144
Miller, Webb586781
Schwartz, Michael W.88a84a95
Bouter, Lex M.88104130
Holgate, Stephen T.84107127
Kadowaki, Takashi8096120
Gibbs, Richard A.617886
Buchler, Markus W.7683102
Schomig, Albert7989105
Hood, Leroy7196146
Ioannidis, John P. A.7890105
Paulsen, Ian T.738490
Hicklin, Daniel J.778385
Wolmark, Norman6588107
Durbin, Richard597788
Holman, Rury R.596073

We also note that while both total citation counts and h-index were used in the normalized score, total citation counts are more highly skewed than h-index values. Thus, the h-index typically accounted for greater than 50% of the normalized score for a researcher.

Finally, the normalized scores that we used did not account for multiple authorship of papers and for author position and relative contributions in each paper. The final columns in Tables 1 and 2 provide some additional insight into authorship aspects. Three columns show the numbers of papers with at least 100 citations split by author position. First and single authored papers are counted together (#FS100), while last and middle authored papers are considered separately (#L100 and #M100, respectively). Exact contributions are not listed in many papers and are difficult to quantify with a single simple metric. To attempt to account for authorship patterns and to show how different metrics can change relative rankings, the final column in Tables 1 and 2 shows an authorship-adjusted score (AAS) calculated as the normalized score times the proportion of papers cited 100 times or more that are first, single or last authored papers (pFSL). The rank correlation coefficient is 0·106 (P = 0·033) between total citations and pFSL, 0·012 (P = 0·81) between h-index and pFLS, suggesting that citation indices and authorship positions are almost totally orthogonal. Eventually, the rank correlation coefficient is 0·42 (P < 0·001) between the normalized score and AAS.

The sortable online version of Table 1 (http://www.mapofscience.com/?page_id=761) also contains information on the proportion of papers of each author that is categorized in each of 4 levels of research (applied to basic), as well as the dominant type for each scientist. Research levels were first used in 1976 by Narin et al. [11] when they classified biomedical journals into four types: (i) clinical observation, (ii) clinical mix, (iii) clinical observation and (iv) basic research. Machine learning was recently used to train a classifier on title and abstract words using journal research level data. This classifier was then used to assign research levels to individual articles [12]. It is those research level assignments that are used to populate Table 1. All metrics and descriptors in Tables 1 and 2 are based on the time period 1996–2011.

Comparison with other lists of highly cited scientists

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Method and construction of database
  5. Limitations and caveats
  6. Comparison with other lists of highly cited scientists
  7. Potential uses
  8. References

Thomson Reuters generates lists of the top 1% highly cited scientists for 21 different fields based on total citation counts for articles belonging to each field (in the module Essential Science Indicators) and it also used to generate lists of the 300 most-cited scientists in each of these fields, but the latter option is no longer updated. Other focused lists have been published from time-to-time in various fields [13, 14]. While division per field causes more granularity and adjusts for potential differences in citation density per field, scientists who work in several of these more granular fields are at a major disadvantage vs. scientists concentrated in a more narrow focus. Moreover, the Thomson Reuters classification uses only total citations, while our score incorporates also the h-index that may be more appropriate.

Microsoft Academic Search also allows generating of lists of scientists in distinct fields and also in even more narrow subfields based on total citations or h-index, but not on a combined score. Moreover, the inclusion of papers and the respective citation data for biomedical sciences are still more limited in Microsoft Academic Search than in Scopus.

None of the previously developed lists has accounted for multiple authorship and author contributions. Moreover, they have not provided information on dominant/specific MeSH terms that may provide more accurate information on the focus of each scientist's work.

Potential uses

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Method and construction of database
  5. Limitations and caveats
  6. Comparison with other lists of highly cited scientists
  7. Potential uses
  8. References

The list of highly influential researchers was developed so as to identify a reproducible set of researchers with high citation metrics. We are currently using this list in an ongoing survey of these scientists regarding what features of scientific papers define major impact. The list may be used in additional surveys pertaining to issues where these scientists are likely to offer a highly knowledgeable viewpoint, for example issues of funding, conduct and reporting of scientific research. Lists of influential researchers may also be a resource for identifying suitable scientists for leadership, advisory and reviewer positions. Finally, impact metrics may be used for funding decisions based on appraisal of investigator excellence instead of or in addition to specific grant proposals [15]. We see the generated list as a resource that can be used creatively by other interested investigators for very diverse purposes and we welcome suggestions for improvements.

Address

SciTech Strategies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87122, USA (K. W. Boyack); SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA 19312, USA (R. Klavans); Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA (A. A. Sorensen); Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA (J. P. A. Ioannidis).

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Method and construction of database
  5. Limitations and caveats
  6. Comparison with other lists of highly cited scientists
  7. Potential uses
  8. References