Incretins, amylin and other gut-brain axis hormones in children with coeliac disease
Previous research indicated that coeliac disease (CD) is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the gut-brain axis peptide hormones secretion has not been evaluated so far in patients with CD prior to treatment initiation or under treatment, irrespective of patients having concomitant T1DM or not. The aim of the study was therefore to evaluate these gut hormones at the preprandial levels of patients with CD before and under treatment.
Of forty-seven CD children, 12 untreated (UCD), 22 treated with gluten-free diet (TCD) and 13 treated CD with coexisting T1DM (DCD), and 18 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Preprandial glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide (GIP), active amylin, acylated ghrelin (AG), leptin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) were determined with hormone-map-array technology.
We found in patients with CD compared with HC that the concentration of (i) GLP-1 was reduced remarkably in all patients with CD (P = 0·008), (ii) GIP was lower in patients with UCD (P = 0·008), (iii) amylin was remarkably reduced (P < 0·01) in all patients with CD, (iv) AG was significantly decreased in patients with DCD (P < 0·01), while (v) leptin, PP and PYY were not significantly different. GIP, GLP-1 and amylin levels correlated positively with insulin concentrations (P < 0·001, P = 0·004 and P < 0·01, respectively) in all patients. Amylin and GIP levels were strongly associated with triglycerides concentrations (P < 0·001, for both peptides) in children with CD.
Our study revealed a different secretion pattern of gut-brain axis hormones in children with CD compared with HC. The alterations in the axis were more pronounced in children with both CD and T1DM.