Stephanie Bloom and Cris Ledon-Rettig have contributed equally to this work.
Developmental origins of a novel gut morphology in frogs
Article first published online: 23 APR 2013
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Evolution & Development
Volume 15, Issue 3, pages 213–223, May 2013
How to Cite
Bloom, S., Ledon-Rettig, C., Infante, C., Everly, A., Hanken, J. and Nascone-Yoder, N. (2013), Developmental origins of a novel gut morphology in frogs. Evolution & Development, 15: 213–223. doi: 10.1111/ede.12035
- Issue published online: 23 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 23 APR 2013
- US National Science Foundation (IOB0642012 to N. N.-Y., and EF-0334846—AmphibiaTree—to J. H.)
- Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology (to C. I.)
- North Carolina State University NIH Molecular Biotechnology Training Grant Fellowship (to S. B.)
- NSF Postdoctoral Fellowship (1003035; to C. L.-R.)
Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article:
|ede12035-sm-0001-SupTable-S1.pdf||25K||Table S1. Small molecules used in Xenopus omnivore-to-carnivore screen|
|ede12035-sm-0002-SupFig-S1.png||172K||Fig. S1. Xenopus embryos form a more derived/carnivore-like GD loop morphology upon exposure to small molecules. Xenopus laevis embryos were subjected to an acute chemical treatment with cyclopamine (A; a hedgehog signaling inhibitor; 10–40 μM; P < 0.001), latrunculin (B; an actin polymerization inhibitor; 60–100 μM; P < 0.01) or triiodothyronine (C; thyroid hormone; 0.25–1 mM; P < 0.05). The percentage of embryos with the derived/carnivore-like GD loop and organ placement (NF46) is indicated for each molecule. Embryos that exhibit severely disrupted development (e.g., massive edema, tail curvature) or abnormal, uninterpretable phenotypes not resembling either species are classified as “teratogenized.” Controls for cyclopamine and latrunculin included DMSO (solvent).|
|ede12035-sm-0003-SupFig-S2.png||3472K||Fig. S2. The expression domain of Pitx2 in anuran embryos. In situ hybridization patterns (purple stain) indicate the expression of Pitx2 mRNA in the left lateral plate mesoderm of (A) X. laevis (NF 34), (B) Ceratophrys cranwellii (GS 21), and (C) Lepidobatrachus laevis (GS 21) embryos. Arrows delimit expression domains, which reveal the heterotopic shift in Lepidobatrachus. Expression was not detected in the right side (not shown).|
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