SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • herbivore-induced plant volatiles;
  • HIPV ;
  • Scelionidae;
  • Euschistus heros ;
  • plant background odor;
  • Hemiptera;
  • Pentatomidae;
  • Hymenoptera;
  • Glycine max ;
  • Fabaceae

Abstract

Parasitoids use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to locate their hosts. However, there are few studies in soybean showing the mechanisms involved in the attraction of natural enemies to their hosts and prey. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae) (cv. Dowling), that were induced after injury caused by Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on the searching behavior of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Four HIPVs from soybean, (E,E)-α-farnesene, methyl salicylate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and (E)-2-octen-1-ol, were selected, prepared from standards at various concentrations (10−6 to 10−1 m), and tested individually and in combinations using a two-choice olfactometer (type Y). Telenomus podisi displayed a preference only for (E,E)-α-farnesene at 10−5 m when tested individually and compared to hexane, but they did not respond to the other compounds tested individually at any concentration or when combinations of these compounds were tested. However, the parasitoids stayed longer in the olfactometer arm with the mixture of (E,E)-α-farnesene + methyl salicylate at 10−5 m than in the arm containing hexane. The results suggest that (E,E)-α-farnesene and methyl salicylate might help T. podisi to determine the presence of stink bugs on a plant. In addition, bioassays were conducted to compare (E,E)-α-farnesene vs. the volatiles emitted by undamaged and E. heros-damaged plants, to evaluate whether (E,E)-α-farnesene was the main cue used by T. podisi or whether other minor compounds from the plants and/or the background might also be used to locate its host. The results suggest that minor volatile compounds from soybean plants or from its surroundings are involved in the host-searching behavior of T. podisi.