Coupling physical exercise with dietary glucose supplement for treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: a theoretical model and future directions
Declaration of conflict of interest
Edwin HM Lee has participated in paid advisory board for AstraZeneca and Eli Lilly. Eric YH Chen has participated in paid advisory board for Otsuka, has received educational grant support from Janssen-Cilag, and has received research funding from AstraZeneca, Janssen-Cilag, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Sanofi-Aventis, and Otsuka. All other authors declare that they do not have any conflicts of interest.
Metabolic dysregulation may disrupt the complex neuroprotective mechanisms essential for brain health. Recent studies have pointed out the possible aetiological role of metabolic dysregulation in the onset of schizophrenia and the associated cognitive impairment. In this paper, we aimed to generate a theoretical model of how a combination of physical exercise and dietary glucose supplement may help to alleviate cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
Literature on metabolic dysregulation, especially insulin resistance, in relation to the onset of schizophrenia and the associated cognitive impairment is reviewed. The cognitive enhancement effects of physical exercise and dietary glucose supplement are then summarised. Finally, we propose a theoretical model based on the concerted effects of physical exercise and glucose supplement.
In general, the joint action of physical exercise and dietary glucose supplement could up-regulate glucose and insulin transport into the brain, as well as augmenting the release of insulin growth factor-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Physical exercise and glucose supplement could enhance energy supply and neuroplasticity in brain, subsequently leading to potential cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia. However, glucose supplement is not suitable for patients with abnormal metabolic profile.
The combination of physical exercise and glucose supplement has potential therapeutic values in treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Further research is necessary to investigate the optimal patterns of exercise and doses of glucose for treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.