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FEBS Journal

Cover image for Vol. 278 Issue 19

October 2011

Volume 278, Issue 19

Pages 3529–3793

  1. Minireview Series

    1. Top of page
    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Minireview Series
    5. Minireview
    6. Review Article
    7. Original Articles
    8. Author Index
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      TDP-43: Overview of the series (page 3529)

      Francisco E. Baralle and Emanuele Buratti

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08278.x

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      This minireview series focuses on several open questions regarding the role played by the TDP-43 and FUS/TLS proteins in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS and FTLD. The topics reviewed in the various articles include the role played by these proteins in aggregation, autoregolatory pathways, and general control of RNA metabolism both in normal and disease conditions.

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    2. Minireview Series
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    4. Minireview Series
    5. Minireview
    6. Review Article
    7. Original Articles
    8. Author Index
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      TDP-43: new aspects of autoregulation mechanisms in RNA binding proteins and their connection with human disease (pages 3530–3538)

      Emanuele Buratti and Francisco E. Baralle

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08257.x

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      Autoregulation of protein levels within the eukaryotic cell is a very important process in the maintenance of cellular viability. In this minireview article, we provide an introduction to the different autoregulatory pathways described so far with regards to RNA binding proteins and their possible connections with disease.

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      TDP-43: the relationship between protein aggregation and neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (pages 3539–3549)

      Robert H. Baloh

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08256.x

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      Aggregated proteins are a key pathologic feature of the major neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43 aggregates are present in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and mutations in TDP-43 cause rare familial forms of ALS. This review discusses observations from human pathology, cell culture, and animal model systems, to explore our understanding of the relationship between TDP-43 aggregation and neurodegeneration.

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      TDP-43 and FUS/TLS: cellular functions and implications for neurodegeneration (pages 3550–3568)

      Fabienne C. Fiesel and Philipp J. Kahle

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08258.x

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      TDP-43 and FUS comprise the neuropathological protein aggregates of distinct subtypes of the neurodegenerative diseases frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Functions of the RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS include transcriptional regulation, mRNA processing and miRNA biogenesis. This minireview describes and discusses the specific functions of TDP-43 and FUS in the context of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

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      TDP-43 and FUS/TLS: sending a complex message about messenger RNA in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? (pages 3569–3577)

      Michael J. Strong and Kathryn Volkening

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08277.x

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      Both TDP-43 and FUS/TLS form pathological aggregates in ALS. Both also interact with either DNA or RNA, integrate in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, and impact RNA metabolism pathway at multiple levels. In this minireview, we discuss how an understanding of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS provides further support for the integral role of altered RNA metabolism in ALS.

  3. Minireview Series

    1. Top of page
    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Minireview Series
    5. Minireview
    6. Review Article
    7. Original Articles
    8. Author Index
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      Chromatin remodelling: why, when & how? (page 3578)

      Christophe Lavelle and Ralf Blossey

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08279.x

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      Chromatin is the substrate of gene regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. Faithful transcription relies on finely tuned chromatin remodelling mechanisms that enable temporal access to – or the blocking of – DNA critical sequences. The minireview series on chromatin remodelling brings together approaches from molecular biology, biophysics, imaging and modelling that describe the current state of understanding of remodeller properties.

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    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Minireview Series
    5. Minireview
    6. Review Article
    7. Original Articles
    8. Author Index
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      Mechanisms for ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling: the means to the end (pages 3579–3595)

      Andrew Flaus and Tom Owen-Hughes

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08281.x

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      The biochemistry of chromatin remodelling depends on ATP dependent motor proteins and their dynamic nucleosome substrates. Recent structural insights suggests the Snf2 ATPase is a context-sensitive DNA translocase which may have arisen to enable efficient access to DNA in the high density of the eukaryotic nucleus. How the enzymes engage nucleosomes and induce changes within the nucleosome still remains unclear.

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      Nucleosome-remodelling machines and other molecular motors observed at the single-molecule level (pages 3596–3607)

      Christophe Lavelle, Elise Praly, David Bensimon, Eric Le Cam and Vincent Croquette

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08280.x

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      Single-molecule approaches (mainly micromanipulations with magnetic or optical tweezers and imaging with electron or atomic force microscopes) have recently complemented conventional biochemical and biophysical techniques to measure the forces and torques produced by molecular motors and observe their action on DNA and nucleosomal templates.

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      Chromatin remodelling in mammalian cells by ISWI-type complexes – where, when and why? (pages 3608–3618)

      Fabian Erdel and Karsten Rippe

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08282.x

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      Chromatin remodelers are proteins that position nucleosomes along the DNA chain in an ATP-dependent manner. Since this activity affects the local DNA accessibility it is involved in many DNA-dependent processes. Here, we review the different cellular functions that are exerted by mammalian ISWI chromatin remodelers, and discuss mechanisms by which they are targeted to sites where their activity is needed.

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      The dynamics of the nucleosome: thermal effects, external forces and ATP (pages 3619–3632)

      Ralf Blossey and Helmut Schiessel

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08283.x

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      Nucleosomes are tightly associated with eukaryotic DNA. Mechanisms which can move nucleosomes ‘out of the way’ are required. Possible mechanisms might be found among the spontaneous fluctuations which nucleosomes undergo, that induces partial unwrapping of DNA and introduces twist or loop defects in the wrapped DNA. We further discuss remodelers and describe recent insights about schemes that they might use.

  5. Review Article

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    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Minireview Series
    5. Minireview
    6. Review Article
    7. Original Articles
    8. Author Index
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      Barnase and binase: twins with distinct fates (pages 3633–3643)

      Vera Ulyanova, Valentina Vershinina and Olga Ilinskaya

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08294.x

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      A number of eukaryotic and bacterial RNase-based strategies are being developed for use in anticancer and antiviral therapy. However, the physiological functions of these RNases are often poorly understood. Barnase and binase can be regarded as molecular twins according to their highly similar structural, physical-chemical and catalytic properties. Nevertheless, their expression in bacteria is controlled by diverse signals.

  6. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Minireview Series
    5. Minireview
    6. Review Article
    7. Original Articles
    8. Author Index
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Structural characterization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme in complex with a selenium analogue of captopril (pages 3644–3650)

      Mohd Akif, Geoffrey Masuyer, Sylva L. U. Schwager, Bhaskar J. Bhuyan, Govindasamy Mugesh, R. Elwyn Isaac, Edward D. Sturrock and K. Ravi Acharya

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08276.x

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      Human somatic angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is central to the regulation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and a target for combating hypertension. Selenium analogues of captopril inhibit ACE and protect against peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of peptides and proteins. The crystal structures of human testis ACE (tACE) and Drosophila melanogaster AnCE in complex with a selenium analogue of captopril are reported.

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      Cloning and molecular characterization of a novel acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1-like gene (PtDGAT1) from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (pages 3651–3666)

      Freddy Guihéneuf, Stefan Leu, Aliza Zarka, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Ilkhom Khalilov and Sammy Boussiba

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08284.x

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      The full-length cDNA sequences, encoding a novel acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1-like gene from Phaeodactylum tricornutum, revealed that two types of mRNA, PtDGAT1short and PtDGAT1long, were transcribed from PtDGAT1 gene. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae neutral lipid-deficient mutant, lipid body formation was only restored upon the expression of PtDGAT1short. Alternative-splicing mechanism appears to regulate the amount of active DGAT1 produced under nitrogen starvation.

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      Selective hydroxylation of alkanes by an extracellular fungal peroxygenase (pages 3667–3675)

      Sebastian Peter, Matthias Kinne, Xiaoshi Wang, René Ullrich, Gernot Kayser, John T. Groves and Martin Hofrichter

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08285.x

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      We have found that the peroxygenase secreted by Agrocybe aegerita catalyzes the H2O2-dependent hydroxylation of linear alkanes at the 2- and 3-position with high efficiency as well as the regioselective monooxygenation of branched and cyclic alkanes. In addition, we report data for peroxygenase solvent stability tests, chiral separations, an H218O2-labelling study, intramolecular deuterium isotope effect determinations and radical clock experiments.

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      Identification of candidate substrates for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP2) in the absence of DNA damage using high-density protein microarrays (pages 3676–3687)

      Sonia Troiani, Rosita Lupi, Rita Perego, Stefania Re Depaolini, Sandrine Thieffine, Roberta Bosotti and Luisa Rusconi

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08286.x

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      PARP2 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity is stimulated by DNA damage to participate in the DNA repair process, but there is also evidence for unique functions mediated through basal, DNA-damage independent enzyme activity. We describe a protein microarray approach tailored to identify PARP2 substrates in the absence of DNA damage mimetics as potential exploratory entry points and report FKBP3 and STAC1 as top-scoring candidates.

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      Increased glucose concentration results in reduced proteasomal activity and the formation of glycogen positive aggresomal structures (pages 3688–3698)

      Rajat Puri, Navodita Jain and Subramaniam Ganesh

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08287.x

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      We show here that glycogen particles are recruited to the centrosomal aggresomal structures upon proteasomal or lysosomal blockade, and that this recruitment is dependent on the microtubule function. The aggresomal glycogen particles could provide energy to the proteolytic process and/or might function as a scaffold.

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      Isolation and characterization of type I antifreeze proteins from cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, order Perciformes (pages 3699–3710)

      Rod S. Hobbs, Margaret A. Shears, Laurie A. Graham, Peter L. Davies and Garth. L. Fletcher

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08288.x

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      Characterization of type I antifreeze protein (AFP) in cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), order Perciformes, revealed a sequence and structure remarkably similar to small classical type I AFP isotypes found in the orders Pleuronectiformes (family Pleuronectidae) and Scorpaeniformes (family Cottidae). These results clearly suggest that type I AFPs are multiphyletic in origin, representing remarkable examples of convergent evolution within three teleost orders.

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      Hatching enzyme of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and the possible evolution of the egg envelope digestion mechanism (pages 3711–3723)

      Kaori Sano, Mari Kawaguchi, Masayuki Yoshikawa, Toyoji Kaneko, Toshiomi Tanaka, Ichiro Iuchi and Shigeki Yasumasu

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08289.x

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      Embryo of Japanese eel, an early species in Teleostei, has only a single type of hatching enzyme (EHE). At hatching, a part of egg envelope is softened by EHE. The cleavage sites of EHE are located in the N-terminal repeat regions, not in ZP domain. This manner of EHE is the ancestral form of egg envelope digestion in teleostean evolution.

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      Mutant telomerase RNAs induce DNA damage and apoptosis via the TRF2-ATM pathway in telomerase-overexpressing primary fibroblasts (pages 3724–3738)

      Dashayini Mahalingam, Ling L. Tay, Wei H. Tan, Juin H. Chai and Xueying Wang

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08290.x

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      We identified that mutant template human telomerase RNAs (MT-hTers) induce double strand breaks (DSBs)-like damages following 53BP1 and γ-H2AX foci formation in telomerase-overexpressing IMR90 (IMR90 WThTERT) cells, but not in normal IMR90 cells under similar treatments. Western blot analysis showed that these effects were mediated via the TRF2-ATM pathway and p53 activation, ultimately leading to apoptosis plausibly following elevation of GADD45γ.

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      High-pressure analysis of a hammerhead ribozyme from Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid reveals two different populations of self-cleaving molecule (pages 3739–3747)

      Hussein Kaddour, Jacques Vergne, Guy Hervé and Marie-Christine Maurel

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08291.x

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      Two different populations of fast and slow self-cleaving hammerhead ribozymes were revealed using the high pressure approach. The fast population, with a small ΔV = 2.6 mL·mol−1, represents most likely molecules in near-active conformation while the slow population, with a larger ΔV = 11.6 mL·mol−1, represents molecules that need a larger conformational change to induce activity.

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      Assessing the patterns of linkage disequilibrium in genic regions of the human genome (pages 3748–3755)

      Peng Sun, Ruijie Zhang, Yongshuai Jiang, Xing Wang, Jin Li, Hongchao Lv, Guoping Tang, Xiaodan Guo, Xianwen Meng, Haikun Zhang and Ruimin Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08293.x

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      We identified linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns for 11,998 genes by analyzing the distribution of haplotype blocks. The genes with high or low LD fell into different gene ontology functional categories, and possessed different haplotype block structure in subregions. In addition, we found the overlap for the intragenic LD regions were more consistent in high LD genes.

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      Substrate-induced conformational changes in Plasmodium falciparum guanosine monophosphate synthetase (pages 3756–3768)

      Javaid Y. Bhat, Roopa Venkatachala and Hemalatha Balaram

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08296.x

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      Plasmodium falciparum GMP synthetase (PfGMPS) is a two-domain single polypeptide amidotransferase. Inter-domain cross-talk is a hallmark of this class of enzymes. Through the combined use of H/D exchange coupled to mass spectrometry and other spectroscopic techniques, we show that PfGMPS, upon substrate binding to the ATPPase domain, exhibits structural transitions that traverse to the GAT domain.

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      Alteration of the N-glycome of bovine milk glycoproteins during early lactation (pages 3769–3781)

      Shota Takimori, Hideyuki Shimaoka, Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Tadashi Yamashita, Maho Amano, Naoki Fujitani, Yasuhiro Takegawa, Lennart Hammarström, Imre Kacskovics, Yasuro Shinohara and Shin-Ichiro Nishimura

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08299.x

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      Unique alteration of bovine milk N-glycome during early lactation revealed by glycoblotting and MALDI-TOF MS analyses was largely attributable to the dramatic change of the IgG glycosylation pattern around parturition. Bovine FcRn binds IgG2 better than IgG1 suggesting the role of FcRn in the bovine mammary gland is to recycle IgG2 from the udder to blood.

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      Parathyroid hormone affects the fibroblast growth factor–proteoglycan signaling axis to regulate osteosarcoma cell migration (pages 3782–3792)

      Georgios A. Datsis, Aikaterini Berdiaki, Dragana Nikitovic, Maria Mytilineou, Pavlos Katonis, Nikos K. Karamanos and George N. Tzanakakis

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08300.x

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      A significant part of the parathyroid peptide PTH(1-34) bone anabolic action is attributed to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) stimulation. PTH(1-34) was recently found to regulate osteosarcoma cell migration. The present study demonstrates a novel cooperative mechanism of PTH(1-34) and FGF-2 action which results in specific alteration of the biglycan ECM content to regulate osteosarcoma cell migration.

  7. Author Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Minireview Series
    5. Minireview
    6. Review Article
    7. Original Articles
    8. Author Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Author index (page 3793)

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.07855.x

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