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FEBS Journal

Cover image for Vol. 278 Issue 8

April 2011

Volume 278, Issue 8

Pages 1189–1380

  1. Minireview Series

    1. Top of page
    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Original Articles
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Author Index
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      Molecular aspects of Helicobacter pylori cag-pathogenicity island (page 1189)

      Giuseppe Zanotti

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08034.x

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      Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are used by bacteria to exchange materials, DNA or proteins, with the external world. Type I strains of Helicobacter pylori code for a special T4SS, called cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag-PAI). This introduction briefly describes a minireview series that reviews the most recent findings on function, organization and structure of the H. pylori cag-PAI secretion system.

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  2. Minireview

    1. Top of page
    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Original Articles
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Author Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Role of the cag-pathogenicity island encoded type IV secretion system in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis (pages 1190–1202)

      Nicole Tegtmeyer, Silja Wessler and Steffen Backert

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08035.x

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      Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) form syringe-like pilus structures for the injection of virulence factors into host target cells. One prime example is the Helicobacter pylori T4SS which highjacks integrin receptor β1 for delivery of CagA proteins and peptidoglycan. Here we review the various signalling capabilities of the T4SS, CagA and peptidoglycan, and their contribution to pathogenesis during infection.

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      Assembly and molecular mode of action of the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion apparatus (pages 1203–1212)

      Wolfgang Fischer

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08036.x

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      The Cag type IV secretion system (Cag-T4SS) is employed by the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori for host cell modulation and virulence. Recent advances in understanding the molecular details of this system have shown considerable differences to related secretion systems from other bacteria. This review describes the functional properties of the Cag-T4SS and highlights its unique features.

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      Architecture of the Helicobacter pylori Cag-type IV secretion system (pages 1213–1222)

      Laurent Terradot and Gabriel Waksman

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08037.x

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      The Cag-Type four secretion systems (Cag-T4SS) is a macromolecular assembly used by the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori to inject the toxin CagA. We review the progress made during the past decade in our understanding of the structural biology of the T4SSs and use recent protein-protein interaction data to refine a model of the particular H. pylori Cag-T4SS.

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      Structural and functional aspects of unique type IV secretory components in the Helicobacter pylori cag-pathogenicity island (pages 1223–1231)

      Laura Cendron and Giuseppe Zanotti

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08038.x

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      Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene-pathogenicity island (cagPAI) includes proteins involved at different levels in pilus assembly, stabilization and processing of secreted substrate as well as regulatory particles possibly involved in the control of T4SS apparatus. In this review we summarize what is known about these accessory components, both from the molecular and structural point of view, and about their putative physiological role.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Original Articles
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Author Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Active site residue involvement in monoamine or diamine oxidation catalysed by pea seedling amine oxidase (pages 1232–1243)

      Maria Luisa Di Paolo, Michele Lunelli, Monika Fuxreiter, Adelio Rigo, Istvan Simon and Marina Scarpa

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08044.x

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      The structural factors underlying substrate selectivity of copper amine oxidases still remain to be discovered. With this in view, we examined the kinetic behaviour of pea seedling amine oxidase with cadaverine and hexylamine as substrates. Relationships between catalytic and structural parameters were demonstrated on the basis of experiments and computations. A new mechanistic model explaining the substrate-dependent kinetics has been proposed.

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      Calix[4]arene methylenebisphosphonic acids as inhibitors of fibrin polymerization (pages 1244–1251)

      Eduard V. Lugovskoy, Pavel G. Gritsenko, Tatyana A. Koshel, Ievgen O. Koliesnik, Serhey O. Cherenok, Olga I. Kalchenko, Vitaliy I. Kalchenko and Serhey V. Komisarenko

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08045.x

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      It has been shown that calix[4]arene tetrakis-methylene-bis-phosphonic acid (C-192) is the potent inhibitor of fibrin polymerization. An HPLC assay, electron microscopy, blood plasma clotting assays testify to blocking of fibrin formation by combining with fibrin polymerization site ‘A’ (Aα17-19). Results demonstrate that C-192 is a specific inhibitor of fibrin polymerization and blood coagulation and a potential platform for antithrombotic agents.

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      Broad antibiotic resistance profile of the subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase GOB-1, a di-zinc enzyme (pages 1252–1263)

      Louise E. Horsfall, Youssef Izougarhane, Patricia Lassaux, Nathalie Selevsek, Benoit M. R. Liénard, Laurent Poirel, Michael B. Kupper, Kurt M. Hoffmann, Jean-Marie Frère, Moreno Galleni and Carine Bebrone

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08046.x

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      The wild-type, Q116A, Q116N and Q116H GOB-1 metallo-β-lactamases were studied. Each mutant showed a significantly reduced activity compared to that of the WT. WT and Q116H bound two zinc ions while only one zinc ion was present in Q116A and Q116N. These results suggest that Q116 plays a role in the binding of the zinc ion in the QHH site.

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      Enzymes of mannitol metabolism in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus – kinetic properties of mannitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase and mannitol 2-dehydrogenase, and their physiological implications (pages 1264–1276)

      Stefan Krahulec, Guilliano Cem Armao, Mario Klimacek and Bernd Nidetzky

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08047.x

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      Intracellular accumulation of mannitol is correlated with enhanced resistance of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus against host defense mechanisms. Metabolic roles of mannitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase (AfM1PDH) and mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (AfM2DH) were analyzed. Under physiological conditions, AfM1PDH primarily functions as a D-fructose 6-phosphate reductase whereas AfM2DH acts in D-mannitol oxidation. Inhibition of AfM1PDH might be a useful target for therapy.

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      Re-evaluation of the function of the F420 dehydrogenase in electron transport of Methanosarcina mazei (pages 1277–1287)

      Cornelia Welte and Uwe Deppenmeier

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08048.x

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      The methanogen Methanosarcina mazei contains a complex branched respiratory chain with various possibilities to metabolize reducing equivalents. In this study, two mutants of the F420 dehydrogenase (ΔfpoA-O and ΔfpoF) were constructed and analyzed, indicating that F420 dehydrogenase is the key enzyme in F420H2 oxidation in Ms. mazei. Furthermore, soluble FpoF was identified as ferredoxin: F420 oxidoreductase.

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      Catalytic mechanism of the primary human prostaglandin F synthase, aldo-keto reductase 1B1 – prostaglandin D2 synthase activity in the absence of NADP(H) (pages 1288–1298)

      Nanae Nagata, Yukiko Kusakari, Yoshifumi Fukunishi, Tsuyoshi Inoue and Yoshihiro Urade

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08049.x

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      Aldo-keto reductase 1B1, the primary human prostaglandin (PG) F synthase, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of PGH2 to PGF and the isomerization of PGH2 to PGD2 in the absence of NADP(H). Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular docking simulation of PGH2 to the crystallographic structure indicated that His110 acts as a base and an acid to generate PGD2 and PGF, respectively.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum

      Vol. 278, Issue 22, 4450–4451, Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011

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      Specific biomarkers for stochastic division patterns and starvation-induced quiescence under limited glucose levels in fission yeast (pages 1299–1315)

      Tomáš Pluskal, Takeshi Hayashi, Shigeaki Saitoh, Asuka Fujisawa and Mitsuhiro Yanagida

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08050.x

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      Glucose as a source of energy is centrally important to our understanding of life. We investigated cell division-quiescence behaviour of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under a wide range of glucose concentrations. To characterize the observed phenotypes, we employed a quantitative metabolomic approach and identified specific metabolic biomarkers, which increased or decreased at different glucose concentrations.

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      Neuropeptide Y, B-type natriuretic peptide, substance P and peptide YY are novel substrates of fibroblast activation protein-α (pages 1316–1332)

      Fiona M. Keane, Naveed A. Nadvi, Tsun-Wen Yao and Mark D. Gorrell

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08051.x

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      This is the first identification of natural substrates of the dipeptidyl peptidase activity of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP). FAP efficiently hydrolysed neuropeptide Y, B-type natriuretic peptide, substance P and peptide YY, slowly hydrolysed glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, but showed negligible or no hydrolysis of chemokines. These data indicate potential roles for FAP in cardiac function and neurobiology.

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      Dopamine D4 receptor oligomerization – contribution to receptor biogenesis (pages 1333–1344)

      Kathleen Van Craenenbroeck, Dasiel O. Borroto-Escuela, Wilber Romero-Fernandez, Kamila Skieterska, Pieter Rondou, Béatrice Lintermans, Peter Vanhoenacker, Kjell Fuxe, Francisco Ciruela and Guy Haegeman

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08052.x

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      We investigated the oligomerization properties of three polymorphic repeat variants of the hD4.xR by immunoblot analysis, co-immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) studies. We demonstrate that hD4.xR oligomerization occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and plays a role in receptor biogenesis. Furthermore the number of repeats is important for the efficiency and affinity to form oligomers.

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      Cloning, expression and characterization of a new aspartate aminotransferase from Bacillus subtilis B3 (pages 1345–1357)

      Hui-Jun Wu, Yang Yang, Shuai Wang, Jun-Qing Qiao, Yan-Fei Xia, Yu Wang, Wei-Duo Wang, Sheng-Feng Gao, Jun Liu, Peng-Qi Xue and Xue-Wen Gao

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08054.x

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      A new Ib-subgroup of aspartate aminotransferases (AATB3) was identified from Bacillus subtilis. AATB3 had molecular mass of 49.1 kDa and showed maximal activity at pH8.0 and 45 °C. The Km values for AATB3 were 6.7, 0.3, 8.0 and 0.7 mm for l-aspartate, α-ketoglutarate, l-glutamate and oxaloacetate, respectively. The aspartate-232, lysine-270 and arginine-403 residues of AATB3 play a key role in transamination.

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      Oligomannose-coated liposomes efficiently induce human T-cell leukemia virus-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes without adjuvant (pages 1358–1366)

      Tomohiro Kozako, Shinya Hirata, Yoshitaka Shimizu, Yuichiro Satoh, Makoto Yoshimitsu, Yohann White, François Lemonnier, Hiroshi Shimeno, Shinji Soeda and Naomichi Arima

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08055.x

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      We examined the efficient induction of HTLV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell response by oligomannose-coated liposomes (OMLs) encapsulating the HTLV-1 Tax-epitope (OML/Tax) in vivo and ex vivo. Our results indicated that OML/Tax efficiently induced the HTLV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell response without adjuvant, suggesting that the efficient antigen delivery system can be exploited to develop a therapeutic vaccine model against tumors and infectious diseases.

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      Cotton GhMPK2 is involved in multiple signaling pathways and mediates defense responses to pathogen infection and oxidative stress (pages 1367–1378)

      Liang Zhang, Dongmei Xi, Lu Luo, Fei Meng, Yuzhen Li, Chang-ai Wu and Xingqi Guo

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08056.x

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      In this study, functional characterization of a cotton group C mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene (GhMPK2) was carried out. The expression of GhMPK2 was induced by signaling molecules and oxidative stress. Overexpression of GhMPK2 significantly elevated the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR), signaling-related and antioxidative genes, and thereby enhanced the transgenic plants disease resistance and oxidative stress tolerance.

  4. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Original Articles
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Author Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum (page 1379)

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08060.x

  5. Author Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Minireview Series
    3. Minireview
    4. Original Articles
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Author Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Author index (page 1380)

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.07844.x

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