European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 4

February 2012

Volume 35, Issue 4

Pages 496–650

  1. REVIEW

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Dendritic calcium mechanisms and long-term potentiation in cortical inhibitory interneurons (pages 496–506)

      Lisa Topolnik

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07988.x

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      Calcium (Ca2+) is a major second messenger in the regulation of different forms of synaptic and intrinsic plasticity. Tightly organized in space and time, postsynaptic Ca2+ transients trigger the activation of many distinct Ca2+ signaling cascades, providing a means for a highly specific signal transduction and plasticity induction.

  2. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Dopaminergic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat (pages 507–518)

      Matthew J. Van Hook, Kwoon Y. Wong and David M. Berson

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07975.x

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      A novel class of photoreceptors, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), express the photopigment melanopsin and drive non-image-forming responses to light such as circadian photoentrainment, the pupillary light reflex and suppression of nocturnal melatonin production in the pineal. Because dendrites from one subclass of these cells – the M1-type ipRGCs – make presumptive synaptic contacts at sites of dopamine release from dopaminergic amacrine cells, they are prime targets for modulation by dopamine, a neuromodulator implicated in retinal circadian rhythms and light adaptation.

    2. Adaptation as a mechanism for gain control in cockroach ON and OFF olfactory receptor neurons (pages 519–526)

      Maria Burgstaller and Harald Tichy

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.07989.x

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      In many sensory systems adaptation acts as a gain control mechanism that optimizes sensory performance by trading increased sensitivity to low stimulus intensity for decreased sensitivity to high stimulus intensity. Adaptation of insect antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) has been studied for strong odour concentrations, either pulsed or constant.

  3. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Ultrastructural characterization of the mesostriatal dopamine innervation in mice, including two mouse lines of conditional VGLUT2 knockout in dopamine neurons (pages 527–538)

      Noémie Bérubé-Carrière, Ginette Guay, Guillaume M. Fortin, Klas Kullander, Lars Olson, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie, Louis-Eric Trudeau and Laurent Descarries

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.07992.x

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      Despite the increasing use of genetically modified mice to investigate the dopamine (DA) system, little is known about the ultrastructural features of the striatal DA innervation in the mouse. This issue is particularly relevant in view of recent evidence for expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) by a subset of mesencephalic DA neurons in mouse as well as rat.

    2. Spatial localization and projection densities of brainstem mossy fibre afferents to the forelimb C1 zone of the rat cerebellum (pages 539–549)

      Luis Herrero, Joanne Pardoe, Nadia L. Cerminara and Richard Apps

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07977.x

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      The present study uses a double retrograde tracer technique in rats to examine the spatial localization and pattern of axonal branching in mossy fibres arising from three major sources in the medulla – the external cuneate nucleus, sensory trigeminal nucleus, and the reticular formation – to two electrophysiologically-identified parts of the cerebellar cortex that are linked by common climbing fibre input: the forelimb-receiving parts of the C1 zone in lobulus simplex and the paramedian lobule.

    3. Contrast tuned responses in primary auditory cortex of the awake ferret (pages 550–561)

      B. Shechter and D. A. Depireux

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07985.x

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      Auditory neurons are often characterized by their spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), a linear measure that captures overall trends of neural responses to modulations of the spectro-temporal envelopes of sounds. We have previously shown that primary auditory cortex neurons of the awake ferret are better characterized by STRFs followed by a non-trivial non-linearity.

    4. Genetic inactivation of the p66 isoform of ShcA is neuroprotective in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (pages 562–571)

      Kimmy G. Su, Costanza Savino, Gail Marracci, Priya Chaudhary, Xiaolin Yu, Brooke Morris, Danielle Galipeau, Marco Giorgio, Michael Forte and Dennis Bourdette

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07972.x

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      Although multiple sclerosis (MS) has traditionally been considered to be an inflammatory disease, recent evidence has brought neurodegeneration into the spotlight, suggesting that accumulated damage and loss of axons is critical to disease progression and the associated irreversible disability. Proposed mechanisms of axonal degeneration in MS posit cytosolic and subsequent mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, accumulation of pathologic reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death.

    5. Levodopa influences striatal activity but does not affect cortical hyper-activity in Parkinson’s disease (pages 572–583)

      K. Martinu, C. Degroot, C. Madjar, A. P. Strafella and O. Monchi

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07979.x

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      Motor studies of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have shown cortical hypo-activity in relation to nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Cognitive studies also identified increased cortical activity in PD. We have previously suggested that the hypo-activity/hyper-activity patterns observed in PD are related to the striatal contribution.

  4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Interactions of odorants with olfactory receptors and receptor neurons match the perceptual dynamics observed for woody and fruity odorant mixtures (pages 584–597)

      M. A. Chaput, F. El Mountassir, B. Atanasova, T. Thomas-Danguin, A. M. Le Bon, A. Perrut, B. Ferry and P. Duchamp-Viret

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07976.x

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      The present study aimed to create a direct bridge between observations on peripheral and central responses to odorant mixtures and their components. Three experiments were performed using mixtures of fruity (isoamyl acetate; ISO) and woody (whiskey lactone; WL) odorants known to contribute to some of the major notes in Burgundy red wine.

    2. Extinction reveals that primary sensory cortex predicts reinforcement outcome (pages 598–613)

      Kasia M. Bieszczad and Norman M. Weinberger

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07974.x

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      Primary sensory cortices are traditionally regarded as stimulus analysers. However, studies of associative learning-induced plasticity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) indicate involvement in learning, memory and other cognitive processes. For example, the area of representation of a tone becomes larger for stronger auditory memories and the magnitude of area gain is proportional to the degree that a tone becomes behaviorally important.

    3. Neural circuit competition in cocaine-seeking: roles of the infralimbic cortex and nucleus accumbens shell (pages 614–622)

      Ryan T. LaLumiere, Kyle C. Smith and Peter W. Kalivas

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.07991.x

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      Following cocaine self-administration and extinction training, activity in the infralimbic cortex (IL) suppresses cocaine-seeking behavior. IL inactivation induces cocaine-seeking whereas activation suppresses cocaine-reinstated drug-seeking.

  5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. You have free access to this content
      Unconscious response priming by shape depends on geniculostriate visual projection (pages 623–633)

      Mika Koivisto, Linda Henriksson, Antti Revonsuo and Henry Railo

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07973.x

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      It has been suggested that unconscious visual processing of some stimulus features might occur without the contribution of early visual cortex (V1/V2). In the present study, the causal role of V1/V2 in unconscious processing of simple shapes in intact human brain was studied by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on early visual cortex or lateral occipital cortex (LO) while observers performed a metacontrast-masked response priming task with arrow figures as visual stimuli.

    2. Specialization of the posterior temporal lobes for audio-motor processing – evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of skilled drummers (pages 634–643)

      Chen-Gia Tsai, Li-Ying Fan, Shu-Hui Lee, Jyh-Horng Chen and Tai-Li Chou

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.07996.x

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      Sounds of hammering or clapping can evoke simulation of the arm movements that have been previously associated with those sounds. This audio-motor transformation also occurs at the sequential level and plays a role in speech and music processing.

    3. Language performance and auditory evoked fields in 2- to 5-year-old children (pages 644–650)

      Yuko Yoshimura, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Kiyomi Shitamichi, Sanae Ueno, Gerard B. Remijn, Yasuhiro Haruta, Manabu Oi, Toshio Munesue, Tsunehisa Tsubokawa, Haruhiro Higashida and Yoshio Minabe

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.07998.x

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      Language development progresses at a dramatic rate in preschool children. As rapid temporal processing of speech signals is important in daily colloquial environments, we performed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the linkage between speech-evoked responses during rapid-rate stimulus presentation (interstimulus interval < 1 s) and language performance in 2- to 5-year-old children (= 59).

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