European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 6

March 2012

Volume 35, Issue 6

Pages 805–986

  1. REVIEW

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. You have free access to this content
      Exploration and modulation of brain network interactions with noninvasive brain stimulation in combination with neuroimaging (pages 805–825)

      Mouhsin M. Shafi, M. Brandon Westover, Michael D. Fox and Alvaro Pascual-Leone

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08035.x

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      Much recent work in systems neuroscience has focused on how dynamic interactions between different cortical regions underlie complex brain functions such as motor coordination, language and emotional regulation. Various studies using neuroimaging and neurophysiologic techniques have suggested that in many neuropsychiatric disorders, these dynamic brain networks are dysregulated.

  2. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Trial-to-trial correlation between thalamic sensory response and global EEG activity (pages 826–837)

      Yonatan Katz (יונתן כץ), Michael Okun and Ilan Lampl

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08006.x

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      Thalamic gating of sensory inputs to the cortex varies with behavioral conditions, such as sleep–wake cycles, or with different stages of anesthesia. Behavioral conditions in turn are accompanied by stereotypic spectral content of the EEG.

    2. Parvalbumin-producing cortical interneurons receive inhibitory inputs on proximal portions and cortical excitatory inputs on distal dendrites (pages 838–854)

      Hiroshi Kameda, Hiroyuki Hioki, Yasuyo H. Tanaka, Takuma Tanaka, Jaerin Sohn, Takahiro Sonomura, Takahiro Furuta, Fumino Fujiyama and Takeshi Kaneko

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08027.x

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      To examine inputs to parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons, we generated transgenic mice expressing somatodendritic membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein specifically in the interneurons, and completely visualized their dendrites and somata. Using immunolabeling for vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT)1, VGluT2, and vesicular GABA transporter, we found that VGluT1-positive terminals made contacts fourfold and 3.1-fold more frequently with PV-producing interneurons than VGluT2-positive and GABAergic terminals, respectively, in the primary somatosensory cortex.

    3. Intracortical connectivity of layer VI pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex of normal and barrelless mice (pages 855–869)

      Fabien Pichon, Irina Nikonenko, Rudolf Kraftsik and Egbert Welker

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08011.x

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      In mice, barrels in layer IV of the somatosensory cortex correspond to the columnar representations of whisker follicles. In barrelless (BRL) mice, barrels are absent, but functionally, a columnar organization persists.

    4. Cognitive deficits in a mouse model of pre-manifest Parkinson’s disease (pages 870–882)

      Iddo Magen, Sheila M. Fleming, Chunni Zhu, Eddie C. Garcia, Katherine M. Cardiff, Diana Dinh, Krystal De La Rosa, Maria Sanchez, Eileen Ruth Torres, Eliezer Masliah, J. David Jentsch and Marie-Françoise Chesselet

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08012.x

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      Early cognitive deficits are increasingly recognized in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and represent an unmet need for the treatment of PD. These early deficits have been difficult to model in mice, and their mechanisms are poorly understood.

    5. Endogenous neural precursors influence grafted neural stem cells and contribute to neuroprotection in the parkinsonian rat (pages 883–895)

      Lalitha Madhavan, Brian F. Daley, Caryl E. Sortwell and Timothy J. Collier

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08019.x

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      Neuroprotective and neurorescue effects after neural stem/precursor cell (NPC) transplantation have been reported, but the mechanisms underlying such phenomena are not well understood. Our recent findings in a rat Parkinson’s disease (PD) model indicate that transplantation of NPCs before a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) insult can result in nigrostriatal protection which is associated with endogenous NPC proliferation, migration and neurogenesis.

    6. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation restores the efferent cortical drive to muscle in parallel to functional motor improvement (pages 896–908)

      Daniel Weiss, Sorin Breit, Julia Hoppe, Ann-Kathrin Hauser, Dirk Freudenstein, Rejko Krüger, Paul Sauseng, Rathinaswamy B. Govindan and Christian Gerloff

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08014.x

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      Pathological synchronization in large-scale motor networks constitutes a pathophysiological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Corticomuscular synchronization in PD is pronounced in lower frequency bands (< 10 Hz), whereas efficient cortical motor integration in healthy persons is driven in the beta frequency range.

    7. Distinct cortical networks support the planning and online control of reaching-to-grasp in humans (pages 909–915)

      Scott Glover, Matthew B. Wall and Andrew T. Smith

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08018.x

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      A number of brain imaging studies have identified regions involved in the planning and control of complex actions. Here we attempt to contrast activity related to planning and online control in the human brain during simple reaching and grasping movements.

  3. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. A goal-directed spatial navigation model using forward trajectory planning based on grid cells (pages 916–931)

      Uğur M. Erdem and Michael Hasselmo

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08015.x

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      A goal-directed navigation model is proposed based on forward linear look-ahead probe of trajectories in a network of head direction cells, grid cells, place cells and prefrontal cortex (PFC) cells. The model allows selection of new goal-directed trajectories.

    2. Enhanced extinction of cocaine seeking in brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met knock-in mice (pages 932–939)

      Lisa. A. Briand, Francis S. Lee, Julie A. Blendy and R. Christopher Pierce

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08021.x

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      The Val66Met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene results in alterations in fear extinction behavior in both human populations and mouse models. However, it is not clear whether this polymorphism plays a similar role in extinction of appetitive behaviors.

    3. Cocaine abstinence alters nucleus accumbens firing dynamics during goal-directed behaviors for cocaine and sucrose (pages 940–951)

      Courtney M. Cameron and Regina M. Carelli

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08024.x

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      Distinct subsets of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons differentially encode goal-directed behaviors for natural vs. drug rewards, and the encoding of cocaine-seeking is altered following cocaine abstinence. Here, electrophysiological recording procedures were used to determine if the selective encoding of natural vs. cocaine reward by NAc neurons is: (i) maintained when the natural reinforcer is a highly palatable sweet tastant and (ii) altered by cocaine abstinence.

    4. Basolateral amygdala encodes upcoming errors but not response conflict (pages 952–959)

      Vadim Kashtelyan, Steven C. Tobia, Amanda C. Burton, Daniel W. Bryden and Matthew R. Roesch

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08022.x

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      Adaptive behavior depends on the detection of potential errors so that ongoing behavior might be corrected. Here, we ask whether basolateral amygdala (ABL) might serve this function by examining activity in rats performing a task in which errors were induced by pitting two behavioral responses against each other.

  4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Pitting binding against selection – electrophysiological measures of feature-based attention are attenuated by Gestalt object grouping (pages 960–967)

      Adam C. Snyder, Ian C. Fiebelkorn and John J. Foxe

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08016.x

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      Humans have limited cognitive resources to process the nearly limitless information available in the environment. Endogenous, or ‘top-down’, selective attention to basic visual features such as color or motion is a common strategy for biasing resources in favor of the most relevant information sources in a given context.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Causal implication by rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation of alpha frequency in feature-based local vs. global attention (pages 968–974)

      Vincenzo Romei, Gregor Thut, Robert M. Mok, Philippe G. Schyns and Jon Driver

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08020.x

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      Although oscillatory activity in the alpha band was traditionally associated with lack of alertness, more recent work has linked it to specific cognitive functions, including visual attention. The emerging method of rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows causal interventional tests for the online impact on performance of TMS administered in short bursts at a particular frequency.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Plasticity of cortical inhibition in dystonia is impaired after motor learning and paired-associative stimulation (pages 975–986)

      Sabine Meunier, Heike Russmann, Ejaz Shamim, Jean-Charles Lamy and Mark Hallett

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08034.x

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      Artificial induction of plasticity by paired associative stimulation (PAS) in healthy volunteers (HV) demonstrates Hebbian-like plasticity in selected inhibitory networks as well as excitatory networks. In a group of 17 patients with focal hand dystonia and a group of 19 HV, we evaluated how PAS and the learning of a simple motor task influence the circuits supporting long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI, reflecting activity of GABAB interneurons) and long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI, reflecting activity of somatosensory inputs to the motor cortex).

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