European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 1

July 2012

Volume 36, Issue 1

Pages 1951–2117


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    1. Generation and clonal isolation of retinal stem cells from human embryonic stem cells (pages 1951–1959)

      Laura Clarke, Brian G. Ballios and Derek van der Kooy

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08123.x

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      Retinal stem cells (RSCs) are present within the pigmented ciliary epithelium (CE) of the adult human eye and produce progeny that differentiate in vitro into all neural retinal subtypes and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). We hypothesized that a RSC population, similar to the adult CE-derived RSC, is contained within pigmented colonies that arise in long-term cultures of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) suggested to recapitulate retinal development in vitro.

    2. Preso regulation of dendritic outgrowth through PI(4,5)P2-dependent PDZ interaction with βPix (pages 1960–1970)

      Jiwon Mo, Dongmin Lee, Soontaek Hong, Seungrie Han, Hyojin Yeo, Woong Sun, Sukwoo Choi, Hyun Kim and Hyun Woo Lee

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08124.x

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      Preso (PSD-95-interacting regulator of spine morphogenesis) forms a complex with βPix (PAK-interacting exchange factor beta) via PDZ interaction in dendritic growth cones and its interaction is required for neuronal dendritic development through the maintenance of F-actin by activation of small GTPase signalling. Phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding to FERM domain of Preso induces its conformational change toward open PDZ domain and enhances the interaction with βPix.


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    1. Altered profile of basket cell afferent synapses in hyper-excitable dentate gyrus revealed by optogenetic and two-pathway stimulations (pages 1971–1983)

      Marco Ledri, Litsa Nikitidou, Ferenc Erdelyi, Gabor Szabo, Deniz Kirik, Karl Deisseroth and Merab Kokaia

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08080.x

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      Cholecystokinin (CCK-) positive basket cells form a distinct class of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, proposed to act as fine-tuning devices of hippocampal gamma-frequency (30–90 Hz) oscillations, which can convert into higher frequency seizure activity. Therefore, CCK-basket cells may play an important role in regulation of hyper-excitability and seizures in the hippocampus.

    2. Stratum oriens stimulation-evoked modulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation involves the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and the inhibition of Kv7/M potassium ion channels (pages 1984–1992)

      Etsuko Suzuki and Takashi Okada

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08127.x

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      The activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) reportedly enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity; however, the mechanism by which it enhances synaptic plasticity remains unclear. Here, authors propose that stratum oriens stimulation inhibits Kv7/M K+ channels through mAChR activation-induced phospholipase C activation, which leads to voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activation, and hence causes sufficient Ca2+ influx to enhance long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA1 area.

    3. Mild activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is neuroprotective in rat hippocampal slice models of ischemic tolerance (pages 1993–2005)

      Elisabetta Gerace, Tania Scartabelli, Laura Formentini, Elisa Landucci, Flavio Moroni, Alberto Chiarugi and Domenico E. Pellegrini-Giampietro

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08116.x

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      We developed in vitro models of ischemic tolerance by exposing organotypic hippocampal slices to subtoxic concentrations of either NMDA or DHPG and then, 24 h later, to 30 min oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Exposure of slices to PARP-1/2 or caspase-3/7 inhibitors during NMDA and DHPG preconditioning prevented the development of OGD tolerance. Pharmacological preconditioning may promote neuroprotection by sublethal activation of two otherwise harmful executioners such as PARP and caspase-3/7.


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    1. Doxycycline treatment in a neonatal rat model of hypoxia–ischemia reduces cerebral tissue and white matter injury: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study (pages 2006–2016)

      Marius Widerøe, Marianne B Havnes, Tora Sund Morken, Jon Skranes, Pål-Erik Goa and Ann-Mari Brubakk

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08114.x

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      Doxycycline may potentially be a neuroprotective treatment for neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury through its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to examine any long-term neuroprotection by doxycycline treatment on cerebral gray and white matter.

    2. The extracellular matrix and diffusion barriers in focal cortical dysplasias (pages 2017–2024)

      Josef Zamecnik, Ales Homola, Michal Cicanic, Klara Kuncova, Petr Marusic, Pavel Krsek, Eva Sykova and Lydia Vargova

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08107.x

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      NeuN immunohistochemistry revealed a normal laminar distribution of neurons in non-malformed cortex (A) and the delamination and columnar disorganization of neurons in FCD type I (B), which was accompanied by the presence of large dysmorphic neurons with atypical morphology and aberrant orientation in FCD type II (C). Immunostaining with anti-GFAP demonstrated only scarce GFAP-positive glial cell processes, mostly in the subpial zone of the non-malformed cortex (D). The number and branching of GFAP-positive cell processes were increased in FCD type I (E), and further increased in FCD type II (F). Scale bars: (A) 500 lm, (B and C) 200 lm, and (E and F) 100 lm. Representative TMA+-diffusion curves recorded in each distinct type of tissue sample with the corresponding values of the ECS diffusion parameters a, k and k% are given below. The disrupted cytoarchitecture and ECM composition slows down the diffusion in the ECS of FCD type I, as reflected by an increase in k. In FCD type II, a is larger; however, k is also increased, indicating that diffusion is also slowed down. For comparison, a ‘normal’ TMA+-diffusion curve (grey silhouette) is superimposed on the diffusion curve recorded in the dysplastic tissue.

    3. Temporomandibular joint-evoked responses by spinomedullary neurons and masseter muscle are enhanced after repeated psychophysical stress (pages 2025–2034)

      Keiichiro Okamoto, Akimasa Tashiro, Zheng Chang, Randall Thompson and David A. Bereiter

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08100.x

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      Psychological stress is a risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal pain of the head and neck; however, the basis for this relationship remains uncertain. This study tested the hypothesis that psychophysical stress alone was sufficient to alter the encoding properties of spinomedullary dorsal horn neurons and masseter muscle activity in male rats.

    4. The morphology and variability of the caudal rami of the superior temporal sulcus (pages 2035–2053)

      Emily Segal and Michael Petrides

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08109.x

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      The caudal branches of the superior temporal sulcus (cSTS) have been difficult to characterize because of the considerable degree of morphological variability across individuals. Leading atlases of the human brain are inconsistent with each other in terms of the number of branches identified and the nomenclature used to refer to them.

    5. Variability in step training enhances locomotor recovery after a spinal cord injury (pages 2054–2062)

      Prithvi K. Shah, Yury Gerasimenko, Andrew Shyu, Igor Lavrov, Hui Zhong, Roland R. Roy and Victor R. Edgerton

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08106.x

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      Performance of a motor task is improved by practicing a specific task with added ‘challenges’ to a training regimen. We tested the hypothesis that in the absence of brain control the performance of a motor task is enhanced by training using specific variations of that task.

    6. Breaking camouflage: responses of neurons in the middle temporal area to stimuli defined by coherent motion (pages 2063–2076)

      Leo L. Lui, Anouska E. Dobiecki, James A. Bourne and Marcello G. P. Rosa

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08121.x

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      Camouflaged animals remain inconspicuous only insofar as they remain static. This demonstrates that motion is a powerful cue for figure–ground segregation, allowing detection of moving objects even when their luminance and texture characteristics are matched to the background.

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      Formerly known as inhibitory: effects of 1-Hz rTMS on auditory cortex are state-dependent (pages 2077–2087)

      Nathan Weisz, Laura Steidle and Isabel Lorenz

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08097.x

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      The major rTMS paradigm applied to the treatment of tinnitus has been the 1 Hz variant due to its alleged inhibitory effects. Clinical effects have however been modest at best. This study shows in normal hearing individuals that the effects of 1 Hz rTMS applied to auditory cortex can be modulated by filtered noises as preconditioning intervention. Apart from demonstrating that 1 Hz auditory cortical rTMS is strongly-state-dependent, this study opens up avenues for improving the spatial selectivity of rTMS applied to the auditory system.

    8. Differential modulations of ipsilateral and contralateral beta (de)synchronization during unimanual force production (pages 2088–2097)

      B. C. M. van Wijk, P. J. Beek and A. Daffertshofer

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08122.x

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      We investigated the role of beta oscillations in ipsilateral M1 during unimanual force production. M1 power, corticospinal and bilateral M1 phase synchronization were assessed during continuous static and dynamic force conditions, as well as in an event-related design. Modulations of ipsilateral M1 beta power do not fully resemble those of contralateral M1 and therefore are likely to reflect not only interhemispheric cross-talk but additional neural mechanisms.

    9. Phantom digit somatotopy: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in forearm amputees (pages 2098–2106)

      Anders Björkman, Andreas Weibull, Johan Olsrud, H. Henrik Ehrsson, Birgitta Rosén and Isabella M. Björkman-Burtscher

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08099.x

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      Forearm amputees often experience non-painful sensations in their phantom when the amputation stump is touched. Cutaneous stimulation of specific stump areas (stump hand map) may be perceived as stimulation of specific phantom fingers.

    10. Activation of spinal TDAG8 and its downstream PKA signaling pathway contribute to bone cancer pain in rats (pages 2107–2117)

      Li-Hua Hang, Jian-Ping Yang, Wei Yin, Li-Na Wang, Feng Guo, Fu-Hai Ji, Dong-Hua Shao, Qi-Nian Xu, Xiu-Yun Wang and Jian-Ling Zuo

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08087.x

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      Bone cancer pain is difficult to treat and has a strong impact on the quality of life of patients. Few therapies have emerged because the molecular mechanisms underlying bone cancer pain are poorly understood.