European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 10

November 2012

Volume 36, Issue 10

Pages 3299–3457

  1. TECHICAL SPOTLIGHT

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
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      Localization of single-cell current sources based on extracellular potential patterns: the spike CSD method (pages 3299–3313)

      Zoltán Somogyvári, Dorottya Cserpán, István Ulbert and Péter Érdi

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08249.x

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      A new, spike CSD (sCSD) method has been developed to reveal CSD distribution of single cells during action potential generation, based on the inverse solution of the Poisson-equation. Simulations showed, that the sCSD method reconstructed the original CSD more precisely than the traditional CSD. Applying our method to spikes, measured in cat A1 cortex with a 16 channel linear probe in vivo, the cell-electrode distances were estimated and the spatio-temporal CSD distributions were reconstructed.

  2. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Slow chemical transmission between dorsal root ganglion neuron somata (pages 3314–3321)

      Gabriela M. Rozanski, Hyunhee Kim, Qi Li, Fiona K. Wong and Elise F. Stanley

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08233.x

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      Sensory neuron cell bodies in the Dorsal Root Ganglion provide axons that link peripheral sense organs to the central nervous system. These neurons are generally believed to be isolated by glial cells and to lack direct neuron-to-neuron signaling. We show that a sub-set of DRG neurons, that abut closely and are separated by a single common glial cell, exhibit slow transmission. This signaling may play a role in sensory processing or contribute to ganglion trophic modulation or development.

    2. Functional properties of dopamine neurons and co-expression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the dorsal raphe nucleus and ventro-lateral periaqueductal grey (pages 3322–3332)

      Antonios G. Dougalis, Gillian A. C. Matthews, Matthew W. Bishop, Frédéric Brischoux, Kazuto Kobayashi and Mark A. Ungless

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08255.x

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      Dopamine neurons in the DRN/vlPAG are electrophysiologically similar to VTA dopamine neurons, but distinct from serotonin neurons. Vasoactive-intestinal polypeptide is co-expressed in a subset of these dopamine neurons, typically those positioned more dorsally, close to the aqueduct. These neurons receive fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs in brainslices.

    3. Nitric oxide as intracellular modulator: internal production of NO increases neuronal excitability via modulation of several ionic conductances (pages 3333–3343)

      Liana Artinian, Lei Zhong, Hansoo Yang and Vincent Rehder

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08260.x

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      Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a modulator of intrinsic neuronal excitability in an identified neuron of the mollusk Helisoma trivolvis. B5 neurons constitutively produce NO, which is necessary for this neuron to fire spontaneous and evoked action potentials. NO acts via up-regulation of a persistent sodium current and a voltage-gated Ca current, and by down-regulation of a small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) current. Only the activation of the Ca current by NO is mediated by sGC-PKG signaling.

  3. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Surround modulation in cortical orientation map revealed by optical imaging and its dependency on receptive field eccentricity (pages 3344–3355)

      Kanami Uchimura, Jun-ya Okamura and Gang Wang

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08248.x

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      Optical imaging was used to investigate the difference in surround modulation on orientation map related to receptive field eccentricity in cat visual cortex. Presentation of center-surround stimuli at the center of gaze resulted in no clear surround modulation, however significant modulation was observed in its corresponding cortical area when the center-surround stimuli were presented at 10° eccentricity in more peripheral parts of the visual field.

    2. Overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor in Barrington’s nucleus neurons by adeno-associated viral transduction: effects on bladder function and behavior (pages 3356–3364)

      Kile McFadden, Tagan A. Griffin, Valerie Levy, John H. Wolfe and Rita J. Valentino

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08250.x

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      CRF overexpression in Barrington’s nucleus neurons by adeno-associated viral transduction produces a gain of function in its spinal and locus coeruleus projections. This has consequences for bladder function and active coping behavior.

    3. Multisynaptic projections from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex to the dorsal premotor cortex in macaques – anatomical substrate for conditional visuomotor behavior (pages 3365–3375)

      Daisuke Takahara, Ken-ichi Inoue, Yoshihiro Hirata, Shigehiro Miyachi, Atsushi Nambu, Masahiko Takada and Eiji Hoshi

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08251.x

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      Both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) are implicated in conditional visuomotor behavior, in which it is required to determine an action based on an associated visual object. However, virtually no direct projections appear to exist between vlPFC and PMd. Here we provide evidence that vlPFC outflow is directed toward PMd in a multisynaptic fashion through the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and the dorsomedial motor cortex (dmMC).

    4. Anatomo-functional organization of the ventral primary motor and premotor cortex in the macaque monkey (pages 3376–3387)

      Monica Maranesi, Francesca Rodà, Luca Bonini, Stefano Rozzi, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Leonardo Fogassi and Gino Coudé

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08252.x

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      We assessed the anatomo-functional relationship between neurophysiological and cytoarchitectonic features of the ventral convexity of primary motor (area F1) and premotor (areas F4 and F5) cortex. Results showed that the dorsal and ventral sectors of areas F4 and F1 form two distinct functional clusters for the organization of motor acts in space and of mouth simple movements, respectively, while F5 is an anatomo-functional area involved in motor-based high order socio-cognitive functions.

    5. Somatostatin varicosities contain the vesicular GABA transporter and contact orexin neurons in the hypothalamus (pages 3388–3395)

      Hanieh Toossi, Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Thomas Stroh and Barbara E. Jones

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08253.x

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      Somatostatin (SST) is a neuropeptide with known inhibitory actions in the hypothalamus, where it inhibits release of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), while also influencing the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we investigated in the rat whether SST neurons might additionally release GABA or glutamate in different regions and whether they might contact orexin neurons that play an important role in the maintenance of wakefulness.

    6. Stress shifts the response of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to an anxiogenic mode (pages 3396–3406)

      Ana P. Ventura-Silva, José M. Pêgo, João C. Sousa, Ana R. Marques, Ana J. Rodrigues, Fernanda Marques, João J. Cerqueira, Osborne F. X. Almeida and Nuno Sousa

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08262.x

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      We found that exposure to chronic stress induces a pattern of cFOS activation in specific nuclei of the BNST that is similar to the one induced by exposure to an anxiogenic stimuli. This altered activation can be correlated with molecular changes within specific BNST divisions. In particular, chronic stress induces a decrease in CRFR1 expression while increasing the expression of CRFR2, GABAA receptor and NR2B in BNST.

    7. Opposite effects of ketamine and deep brain stimulation on rat thalamocortical information processing (pages 3407–3419)

      Sofya P. Kulikova, Elena A. Tolmacheva, Paul Anderson, Julien Gaudias, Brendan E. Adams, Thomas Zheng and Didier Pinault

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08263.x

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      This study tested the hypothesis that sensory deficits induced by the psychotomimetic ketamine are due to an impairment of the ability of the thalamocortical (TC) system to discriminate the relevant information from the baseline activity. A single injection of ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) increases the amount of baseline γ oscillations and decreases both the amplitude of the sensory-evoked TC response and the amount of its related γ oscillations. Thalamic high-frequency DBS has opposite effects.

  4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Intrastriatal excitotoxic lesion or dopamine depletion of the neostriatum differentially impairs response execution in extrapersonal space (pages 3420–3428)

      M. J. Lelos, D. J. Harrison and S. B. Dunnett

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08256.x

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      In order to elucidate more fully the function of the neostriatum, the experiment examined the differential impact of unilateral dopamine depletion or excitoxic lesion on response execution in ipsilateral and contralateral space at up to four levels of eccentricity. Distinct differences in the profiles of impairment were evident after each type of neural dysfunction, which has important implications for understanding the role of the striatum in egocentrically defined response localisation.

    2. The neural pathway underlying social buffering of conditioned fear responses in male rats (pages 3429–3437)

      Yasushi Kiyokawa, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi, Yukari Takeuchi and Yuji Mori

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08257.x

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      In social animals, the presence of an affiliative conspecific alleviates acute stress responses, and this is termed social buffering. However, the neural mechanisms underlying social buffering have not been elucidated.

    3. Amelα8 subunit knockdown in the mushroom body vertical lobes impairs olfactory retrieval in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (pages 3438–3450)

      Thierry Louis, Pierre-Yves Musso, Sabrina Barbosa de Oliveira, Lucile Garreau, Martin Giurfa, Valérie Raymond and Monique Gauthier

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08261.x

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      The role of the Amelα8 nicotinic subunit in olfactory learning and memory was assessed using RNA interference. The protein was present in different brain regions involved in olfactory learning (A, B). Small interfering RNA against Amelα8 induced a 25% decrease in the protein expression 6 h after brain injection (C). Amelα8 knockdown in the mushroom body vertical lobes induced a decrease in retention performance (D) of a discriminative olfactory conditioning task linked to an impairment of retrieval processes.

    4. Off-line Arc transcription in active ensembles during fear memory retrieval (pages 3451–3457)

      Yoshiko Yamasaki, Koichi Hashikawa, Norio Matsuki and Hiroshi Nomura

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08269.x

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      Here, we have shown that memory retrieval alters off-line transcription of Arc/Arg3.1, an activity dependent immediate early gene, in the lateral amygdala. Results demonstrated that neuronal subpopulations activated during fear memory retrieval preferentially transcribe Arc during subsequent rest. This preferential Arc transcription may contribute to memory reconsolidation.

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