European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 11

December 2012

Volume 36, Issue 11

Pages 3459–3601


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    1. The role of the dorsal thalamus in visual processing and object selection: a case of an attentional system in amphibians (pages 3459–3470)

      Tim Ruhl and Ursula Dicke

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08271.x

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      Lesions of the dorsal thalamus affected both the visuomotor behavior toward salient prey-like stimuli and the responses of visual neurons to these stimuli in the midbrain tectum of a salamander. The visual ascending pathways in amphibians essentially contribute to visual spatial attention as in mammals. Our findings support the view that cognitive abilities develop gradually along evolutionary lines.

    2. Persistent decrease in multiple components of the perineuronal net following status epilepticus (pages 3471–3482)

      Paulette A. McRae, Esther Baranov, Stephanie L. Rogers and Brenda E. Porter

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08268.x

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      In the rodent model of temporal lobe epilepsy, there is extensive synaptic reorganization within the hippocampus following a single prolonged seizure event, after which animals eventually develop epilepsy. The perineuronal net (PN), a component of the neural extracellular matrix, primarily surrounds inhibitory interneurons and under normal conditions restricts synaptic reorganization.

    3. Disruption of raphé serotonergic neural projections to the cortex: a potential pathway contributing to remote loss of brainstem neurons following neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury (pages 3483–3491)

      Hanna E. Reinebrant, Julie A. Wixey and Kathryn M. Buller

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08276.x

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      Neuronal injury is a key feature of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. The mechanisms underpinning neuronal losses, such as in the brainstem, are poorly understood.

    4. Trigeminal interpolaris/caudalis transition neurons mediate reflex lacrimation evoked by bright light in the rat (pages 3492–3499)

      Keiichiro Okamoto, Akimasa Tashiro, Randall Thompson, Yasuhiro Nishida and David A. Bereiter

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08272.x

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      Abnormal sensitivity to bright light can cause discomfort or pain and evoke protective reflexes such as lacrimation. Although the trigeminal nerve likely is involved, the mechanism linking luminance to somatic sensory nerve activity remains uncertain.

    5. Interactions between superficial and deep dorsal horn spinal cord neurons in the processing of nociceptive information (pages 3500–3508)

      Hugues Petitjean, Jean-Luc Rodeau and Rémy Schlichter

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08273.x

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      The dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays an important role in the integration of somatosensory information. We show that nociceptive messages are transmitted from superficial to deep laminae of the dorsal horn by an excitatory pathway and that deep laminae exert an inhibitory feedback control over more superficial laminae. In this context laminae III–IV interneurons might play an fundamental role in the integration of nociceptive and non-nociceptive sensory messages at the spinal level.

    6. Massive somatic deafferentation and motor deefferentation of the lower part of the body impair its visual recognition: a psychophysical study of patients with spinal cord injury (pages 3509–3518)

      S. Pernigo, V. Moro, R. Avesani, C. Miatello, C. Urgesi and S. M. Aglioti

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08266.x

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      We report that spinal cord injured paraplegics with somatosensory and motor disconnection between the lower body parts and the brain exhibit specific impairment in the visual recognition of the lower body actions, suggesting a pervasive influence of ongoing body signals on the visual body processing brain network. We also report that the sport practice specifically enhanced the action recognition of the upper body used for motor practice, a potential resource to be exploited for rehabilitation.


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    2. Featured Article
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      Chemotherapy disrupts learning, neurogenesis and theta activity in the adult brain (pages 3521–3530)

      Miriam S. Nokia, Megan L. Anderson and Tracey J. Shors

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12007

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      Chemotherapy disrupts attention, working memory and speed of processing in humans. According to our current results in adult male rats, prolonged systemic chemotherapy is associated with a decrease in hippocampal adult neurogenesis (A and B) and theta activity (C and D) that may explain the selective deficits in processes of learning (E) that describe the ‘chemobrain’.

    3. Anxiolytic- and panicolytic-like effects of Neuropeptide S in the mouse elevated T-maze (pages 3531–3537)

      Alice Pulga, Chiara Ruzza, Anna Rizzi, Remo Guerrini and Girolamo Calo

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08265.x

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      Neuropeptide S (NPS) promotes anxiolytic- and panicolytic-like effects in the mouse elevated T maze via selective activation of the NPS receptor.

    4. Correlated discharges in the primate prefrontal cortex before and after working memory training (pages 3538–3548)

      Xue-Lian Qi and Christos Constantinidis

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08267.x

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      The trial-to-trial correlation of discharge rates between pairs of neurons (noise correlation) was investigated in the prefrontal cortex, before and after training in a working memory task. Noise correlation differed across neurons depending on their responsiveness and selectivity for stimuli and decreased after learning to perform the task. The results demonstrate that learning alters the correlation structure of neuronal firing in the prefrontal cortex.

    5. Regulation of the ventral tegmental area by the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is required for expression of cocaine preference (pages 3549–3558)

      Gregory C. Sartor and Gary Aston-Jones

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08277.x

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      Although several studies have found a strong functional and anatomical projection from ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST) to neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA), it was unknown if this circuit is important in reward-related behaviors. Using local inactivations and cocaine conditioned place preference, we show that inhibition of vBNST or its inputs to VTA significantly attenuated cocaine place preference. Thus, these studies shed light on novel connections involved in cocaine reward.


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    1. Normal aging modulates prefrontoparietal networks underlying multiple memory processes (pages 3559–3567)

      Fabio Sambataro, Martin Safrin, Herve S. Lemaitre, Sonya U. Steele, Saumitra B. Das, Joseph H. Callicott, Daniel R. Weinberger and Venkata S. Mattay

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08254.x

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      Aging is associated with memory decline. Here we investigated age-related changes in brain responses across multiple memory domains. Older subjects had a greater engagement of a prefronto-parietal-occipital network relative to younger subjects during working memory (A, B) and the encoding phase of episodic memory (C). Our findings lend support to the dedifferentiation hypothesis of cognitive aging.

    2. Proactive inhibitory control varies with task context (pages 3568–3579)

      Claire Wardak, Stephen Ramanoël, Olivier Guipponi, Philippe Boulinguez and Suliann B Ben Hamed

      Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08264.x

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      Proactive inhibitory control is a cognitive process that prevents us from producing behavioural responses towards undesired goals. Here, in a cued detection task, we show that this control varies dynamically as a function of the context. The internal representation of the environment (probability of occurrence of the cues and target) and the extrinsic saliency of the elements guide the adaptive adjustment of this cognitive process.

    3. Effects of musical training on the early auditory cortical representation of pitch transitions as indexed by change-N1 (pages 3580–3592)

      Kosuke Itoh, Yoko Okumiya-Kanke, Yoh Nakayama, Ingrid L. Kwee and Tsutomu Nakada

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08278.x

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      A sudden transition in the pitch of an otherwise continuous sound elicits an ERP component called change-N1. Effects of musical training on the change-N1 to melodic and harmonic pitch changes were studied. The change-N1 was chronically enhanced in musicians over right hemisphere, and task modulated its amplitude differently between musicians and non-musicians. The results demonstrate the long-term effects of training, short-term effects of task, and their interaction on the early cortical processing of pitch transitions.

    4. Distinct neural processes in grapheme–colour synaesthetes and semantic controls (pages 3593–3601)

      Valentina Niccolai, Edmund Wascher and Petra Stoerig

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08270.x

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      Whereas synaesthetes show congruency modulation of the N170 component, controls do not. This suggests that early sensory processing distinguishes crossmodal synaesthetic from acquired associations. Both early- and late-stage cognitive components are involved in bidirectional synaesthesia. Similar binding mechanisms appear therefore to subtend the processing of opposite flow directions of information (grapheme-colour, colour-grapheme).