European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 3

August 2012

Volume 36, Issue 3

Pages 2273–2399

  1. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling in activity-related proliferation of adult hippocampal neural stem cells (pages 2273–2283)

      Rokuya Nochi, Tomomasa Kato, Jun Kaneko, Yoshie Itou, Hiroshi Kuribayashi, Satoshi Fukuda, Yasushi Terazono, Ayumu Matani, Shigeaki Kanatani, Kazunori Nakajima and Tatsuhiro Hisatsune

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08128.x

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      Adult hippocampal neural stem cell can be activated by hippocampal neural activities. When focal cerebral ischemia occurs, known as middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), neural stem cells get activated to promote its proliferation.

    2. Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (Lgi1), an epilepsy-related secreted protein, has a nuclear localization signal and localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the caudal ganglionic eminence neurons (pages 2284–2292)

      Sayaka Kusuzawa, Takao Honda, Yuko Fukata, Masaki Fukata, Shigeaki Kanatani, Daisuke H. Tanaka and Kazunori Nakajima

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08129.x

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      Lgi1 mRNA is preferentially expressed in the caudal ganglionic eminence and cortical cells of the early embryonic telencephalon. LGI1 protein is unexpectedly localized in the nucleus only within the dissociated CGE neurons. We have also confirmed that the NLS sequence of LGI1 had the ability to mediate the nuclear localization. Our findings raised the possibility of a novel role of Lgi1 within embryonic neurons through nuclear translocation.

    3. Potentiation of the P2X3 ATP receptor by PAR-2 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, through protein kinase-dependent mechanisms, contributes to inflammatory pain (pages 2293–2301)

      Shenglan Wang, Yi Dai, Kimiko Kobayashi, Wanjun Zhu, Yoko Kogure, Hiroki Yamanaka, You Wan, Wensheng Zhang and Koichi Noguchi

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08142.x

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      Proinflammatory agents trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave and activate protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), which is expressed on sensory nerves and cause neurogenic inflammation. P2X3 is a subtype of the ionotropic receptors for adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and is mainly localized on nociceptors. Here, we show that a functional interaction of the PAR-2 and P2X3 in primary sensory neurons could contribute to inflammatory pain. PAR-2 activation increased the P2X3 currents evoked by alpha beta-methylene ATP in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Application of inhibitors of either protein kinase C (PKC) or protein kinase A (PKA) suppressed this potentiation. Consistent with this, a PKC or PKA activator mimicked the PAR-2 mediated potentiation of P2X3 currents. In the in vitro phosphorylation experiments, application of a PAR-2 agonist failed to establish phosphorylation of the P2X3 either on the serine or the threonine site. In contrast, application of a PAR-2 agonist induced trafficking of the P2X3 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that PAR-2 agonists may potentiate the P2X3, and the mechanism of this potentiation is likely to be a result of translocation, but not phosphorylation. The functional interaction between P2X3 and PAR-2 was also confirmed by detection of the α,β,methylene-ATP-evoked ERK activation, a marker of neuronal signal transduction in DRG neurons, and pain behavior. These results demonstrate a functional interaction of the protease signal with the ATP signal, and a novel mechanism through which protease released in response to tissue inflammation might trigger the sensation to pain through P2X3 activation.

    4. The development, distribution and density of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 calcium pump in rat cochlear hair cells (pages 2302–2310)

      Qingguo Chen, Shanthini Mahendrasingam, Jacqueline A. Tickle, Carole M. Hackney, David N. Furness and Robert Fettiplace

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08159.x

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      Calcium is tightly regulated in cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). It enters mainly via mechanotransducer (MT) channels and is extruded by the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA)2 isoform of the PMCA, mutations in which cause hearing loss.

  2. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Site-dependent and state-dependent inhibition of pruritogen-responsive spinal neurons by scratching (pages 2311–2316)

      Tasuku Akiyama, Mitsutoshi Tominaga, Mirela Iodi Carstens and Earl E. Carstens

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08136.x

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      We investigated if scratching inhibits pruritogen-responsive superficial dorsal horn neurons to relieve itch. Scratching outside the mechanosensitive receptive field inhibited chloroquine- and histamine- but not capsaicin-evoked responses. Scratching within the receptive field enhanced neuronal firing evoked by histamine and capsaicin. Histamine-evoked firing was attenuated post-scratching. Scratching thus inhibits pruritogen-responsive neurons in a site- and modality-dependent manner.

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      Visual perception of bodily interactions in the primary somatosensory cortex (pages 2317–2323)

      Angela Rossetti, Carlo Miniussi, Angelo Maravita and Nadia Bolognini

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08137.x

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      Brain imaging studies in humans have revealed the existence of a visuo-tactile system, which matches observed touch with felt touch. In this system, the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) appears to play a causal role in the visual processing of tactile events.

    3. Responses to two-dimensional shapes in the macaque anterior intraparietal area (pages 2324–2334)

      Maria C. Romero, Ilse Van Dromme and Peter Janssen

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08135.x

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      The shape boundary is sufficient for the image selectivity of the majority of AIP neurons. A subset of AIP neurons with foveal receptive fields preserved the shape preference across positions, whereas for other AIP neurons the center of the receptive field was at a parafoveal location with less tolerance to changes in stimulus position. AIP neurons frequently exhibited shape selectivity across different stimulus sizes. These results are the first evidence for 2D-shape selectivity in area AIP.

  3. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
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    2. Featured Article
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      Insulin in the ventral tegmental area reduces hedonic feeding and suppresses dopamine concentration via increased reuptake (pages 2336–2346)

      Dmitry. M. Mebel, Jovi. C. Y. Wong, Yifei. J. Dong and Stephanie. L. Borgland

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08168.x

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      Insulin causes a long-lasting decrease in somatodendritic dopamine concentration in the VTA due to an increase in dopamine reuptake via dopamine transporters. Insulin suppresses somatodendritic dopamine concentration only at burst-like frequencies, suggesting the possibility that insulin suppresses dopamine during times of discrete cues which typically induce burst firing. Consistent with this, insulin action in the VTA attenuates hedonic but not hungry feeding.

    3. Serotonin of mast cell origin contributes to hippocampal function (pages 2347–2359)

      Katherine M. Nautiyal, Christopher A. Dailey, Jaquelyn L. Jahn, Elizabeth Rodriquez, Nguyen Hong Son, Jonathan V. Sweedler and Rae Silver

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08138.x

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      Mast cells are immune cells that are resident in the mouse brain within and near the hippocampus throughout development and adulthood. Their activation contributes serotonin to the hippocampus. A lack of mast cells is associated with deficits in spatial learning and memory and decreased hippocampal neurogenesis which can be restored through administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine.

    4. Early-life stress-induced anxiety-related behavior in adult mice partially requires forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (pages 2360–2367)

      Xiao-Dong Wang, Christiana Labermaier, Florian Holsboer, Wolfgang Wurst, Jan M. Deussing, Marianne B. Müller and Mathias V. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08148.x

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      Forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) may modulate the anxiogenic effects of early-life stress. Here we report that early-life stress-evoked anxiety-related behavior in adult mice can be partially prevented by postnatal deletion of CRHR1 in forebrain neurons. Moreover, in stressed animals, forebrain CRHR1 inactivation attenuates body weight loss during development and adulthood, and accelerates recovery to acute stress challenge.

    5. Lesions of the orbital prefrontal cortex impair the formation of attentional set in rats (pages 2368–2375)

      E. Alexander Chase, David S. Tait and Verity J. Brown

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08141.x

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      Recent insight into the function of the orbital prefrontal cortex (OFC) has revealed that this area identifies which cues predict reward based on the integration of expected and actual outcomes. We report that lesions of the OFC not only impair reversal learning, but also impair the formation and shifting of attentional set. This finding challenges assumptions that the contribution of the OFC to behavioural flexibility is limited to reversal learning.

  4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Dissociation of BOLD responses to reward prediction errors and reward receipt by a model comparison (pages 2376–2382)

      Tim Rohe, Bernd Weber and Klaus Fliessbach

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08125.x

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      During reward feedback, reward prediction errors due to an unexpectedly received or omitted reward predict BOLD responses better than simple reward receipt in the midbrain and the ventral striatum. Conversely, reward receipt fits the BOLD response better than reward prediction error in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. This finding corroborates an important functional specialization of these reward related processes within the dopaminergic system.

    2. Pathways involved in human conscious vision contribute to obstacle-avoidance behaviour (pages 2383–2390)

      Constanze Hesse, Alison R. Lane, Lina Aimola and Thomas Schenk

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08131.x

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      We studied the occurrence of the hemianopic line bisection error in perceptual tasks (ventral) and visuomotor tasks (dorsal). The finding that a similar spatial bias was observed for conscious visual judgements and for obstacle avoidance performance is interpreted as evidence that the visuomotor system uses visual information from pathways involved in conscious vision.

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      Early semantic and phonological effects on temporal- and muscle-specific motor resonance (pages 2391–2399)

      Ingo G. Meister, Allan D. Wu, Choi Deblieck and Marco Iacoboni

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08134.x

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      Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) explored the relationships between linguistic processing and motor resonance, i.e. the activation of the motor system while perceiving others performing an action. These studies have mainly investigated a specific linguistic domain, i.e. semantics, whereas phonology has been largely neglected.

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