European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 5

September 2012

Volume 36, Issue 5

Pages 2571–2721

  1. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1.  

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    2. Featured Article
      Antidepressants are neuroprotective against nutrient deprivation stress in rat hippocampal neurons (pages 2573–2587)

      David Yang, Michael Chen and Amelia Russo-Neustadt

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08187.x

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      Norepinephrine, serotonin, and three antidepressants increased cell survival and the immunoreactivity of several intracellular survival proteins, such as BDNF, P-Akt, PI-3K, and P-CREB. However, under the same conditions, but without certain key nutrients, only P-Akt levels showed signs of decreasing. Inhibiting these pro-survival pathways, however, decreased cell survival and most of these survival proteins (not P-Akt), relative to those under conditions of nutrient supplement.

    3. Functional characterization of a sex pheromone receptor in the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis by heterologous expression in Drosophila (pages 2588–2596)

      Nicolas Montagné, Thomas Chertemps, Isabelle Brigaud, Adrien François, Marie-Christine François, Arthur de Fouchier, Philippe Lucas, Mattias C. Larsson and Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08183.x

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      A candidate pheromone receptor of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis, was deorphanised using Drosophila antennae as a heterologous expression system. We identified a single component of the pheromone blend of S. littoralis, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, as the ligand of this receptor, named SlitOR6. To our knowledge, we report here the first de novo deorphanization of an odorant receptor outside Diptera using heterologous expression in Drosophila.

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      SREB2/GPR85, a schizophrenia risk factor, negatively regulates hippocampal adult neurogenesis and neurogenesis-dependent learning and memory (pages 2597–2608)

      Qian Chen, Jeffrey H. Kogan, Adam K. Gross, Yuan Zhou, Noah M. Walton, Rick Shin, Carrie L. Heusner, Shinichi Miyake, Katsunori Tajinda, Kouichi Tamura and Mitsuyuki Matsumoto

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08180.x

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      As a schizophenia risk factor, SREB2 gene is highly expressed in brain, especially in the dentate gyrus. However, the function of SREB2 in hippocampus is largely unknown. By employing SREB2 mutant mice (SREB2 Tg and KO mice) in our research, we demonstrated that SREB2 negatively regulated hippocampal adult neurogenesis and affected the consequential cognitive functions.

    5. Altered cell cycle-related gene expression in brain and lymphocytes from a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease [amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (PS1)] (pages 2609–2618)

      Noemí Esteras, Fernando Bartolomé, Carolina Alquézar, Desireé Antequera, Úrsula Muñoz, Eva Carro and Ángeles Martín-Requero

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08178.x

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      By using cell cycle pathway-specific RT2ProfilerTM PCR Arrays, we have detected changes in a number of cell cycle-related genes in brain and in lymphocytes from APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, we have found enhanced BrdU incorporation into DNA in lymphocytes from APP/PS1 mice, and increased expression of cell cycle-related proteins, as detected by immunohistochemistry in cortical neurons of the APP/PS1 mice. These observations support the mitosis failure hypothesis in AD and demonstrate the existence of systemic manifestations of the disease.

  2. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Cellular and subcellular localization of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in rat nociceptive structures: physiological relevance (pages 2619–2631)

      Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo, Cyril Rivat, Patrick Kitabgi, Michel Pohl and Stéphane Melik Parsadaniantz

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08179.x

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      We demonstrate that an intrathecal CXCL12 administration increases mechanical sensitivity in naïve rats. By light/electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, we evidence the CXCL12/CXCR4 trafficking and vesicular sorting in nociceptors. CXCR4 are localized at pre- and post-synaptic sites of primary afferents terminals. The presence of CXCL12/CXCR4-IR in nociceptors reinforces the concept that noxious stimulus-evoked release of CXCL12 participates in nociceptive signaling through CXCR4 present on both primary afferents and second-order neurons in the spinal cord.

    2. Experience-dependent brain plasticity after stroke: effect of ibuprofen and poststroke delay (pages 2632–2639)

      Jan A. Jablonka, Malgorzata Kossut, Otto W. Witte and Monika Liguz-Lecznar

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08174.x

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      Photothrombotic brain infarct impairs experience-dependent plasticity and induces inflammatory response in peri-stroke cortex. Treatment with anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen decreases inflammation and restores plasticity.

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      Differential modulation of motor cortex excitability in BDNF Met allele carriers following experimentally induced and use-dependent plasticity (pages 2640–2649)

      John Cirillo, James Hughes, Michael Ridding, Paul Q. Thomas and John G. Semmler

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08177.x

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      Up to 50% of healthy people have a specific variation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene that may influence their ability to modify brain connections (i.e. plasticity) under some circumstances. Using non-invasive brain stimulation, we found that motor system plasticity was influenced by the BDNF polymorphism, but the effect was dependent on whether a simple or complex motor task was performed.

    4. Axonal properties determine somatic firing in a model of in vitro CA1 hippocampal sharp wave/ripples and persistent gamma oscillations (pages 2650–2660)

      Roger D. Traub, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Miles A. Whittington and Andreas Draguhn

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08184.x

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      Evidence has been presented that CA1 pyramidal cells, during spontaneous in vitro sharp wave/ripple (SPW-R) complexes, generate somatic action potentials that originate in axons. ‘Participating’ (somatically firing) pyramidal cells fire (almost always) at most once during a particular SPW-R whereas non-participating cells virtually never fire during an SPW-R.

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      Simultaneous application of slow-oscillation transcranial direct current stimulation and theta burst stimulation prolongs continuous theta burst stimulation-induced suppression of corticomotor excitability in humans (pages 2661–2668)

      Sebastian H. Doeltgen, Suzanne M. McAllister and Michael C. Ridding

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08181.x

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      Slow frequency brain oscillations can exert significant influence on hippocampal and cortical memory encoding and consolidation. In the primary motor cortex, simultaneous application of slow-oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation prolonged the neuroplastic response to trancranial magnetic Theta Burst Stimulation. Neuronal gating mechanisms may be involved in the observed facilitation of LTD-like plasticity.

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      Effect of intermittent theta-burst stimulation on akinesia and sensorimotor integration in patients with Parkinson’s disease (pages 2669–2678)

      Adrian Degardin, David Devos, Luc Defebvre, Alain Destée, Lucie Plomhause, Philippe Derambure and Hervé Devanne

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08158.x

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      The processing of sensory signals is deficient in Parkinson’s disease and might be involved in akinesia. The application of very high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (intermittent theta-burst stimulation protocol) over the primary motor cortex modified sensorimotor integration of proprioceptive inputs and led to the reduction of akinesia in patients under dopaminergic treatment.

    7. Different effects of spinalization and locomotor training of spinal animals on cholinergic innervation of the soleus and tibialis anterior motoneurons (pages 2679–2688)

      Malgorzata Skup, Olga Gajewska-Wozniak, Paulina Grygielewicz, Tatsyana Mankovskaya and Julita Czarkowska-Bauch

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08182.x

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      Complete transection of the spinal cord causes pronounced decrease in the number of VAChT-positive boutons on the soma of the soleus motoneurons but not on tibialis anterior motoneurons. This distinct effect points to different functional states of the ankle extensor and flexor muscles as a possible source of activity-dependent signaling regulating this input. Importantly, locomotor training causes an increase of the VAChT-positive boutons reducing their deficit on soleus motoneurons.

  3. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Communication before coherence (pages 2689–2709)

      Edmund T. Rolls, Tristan J. Webb and Gustavo Deco

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08188.x

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      The hypothesis of communication through coherence proposes that coherent or synchronous oscillations in connected neural systems can promote communication. It has been applied mainly to how oscillations interact in connected networks.

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      Primary motor and premotor cortex in implicit sequence learning – evidence for competition between implicit and explicit human motor memory systems (pages 2710–2715)

      Shailesh S. Kantak, Chaithanya K. Mummidisetty and James W. Stinear

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08175.x

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      While M1-anodal tDCS during implicit sequence practice enhanced online performance and offline stabilization, PMd-anodal tDCS improved practice performance but attenuated offline stabilization. This indicates distinct role of M1 and PMd for online performance and offline retention. They support the notion of competition between neural substrates of implicit (e.g. M1) and explicit (e.g. PMd) memory during post-practice consolidation, providing insights into the neuroarchitecture of motor memory.

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      Increases of corticospinal excitability in self-related processing (pages 2716–2721)

      Silvia Salerno, Elisa Zamagni, Christian Urquizar, Romeo Salemme, Alessandro Farnè and Francesca Frassinetti

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08176.x

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      The right hemisphere dominates in face-related self-recognition processes. Here, by using TMS over the left and right motor cortex we show that vision of one’s own hand (and cell-phone) increases corticospinal excitability selectively for the right hemisphere, and at relatively late timings. Our findings suggest that owned hands and objects may undergo similar self-processing, although possibly via a different cortical network from that responsible for self-face processing.

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