European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 6

September 2012

Volume 36, Issue 6

Pages 2722–2866

  1. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. OBITUARY
    1. You have free access to this content
      Spatio-temporal control of neural activity in vivo using fluorescence microendoscopy (pages 2722–2732)

      Yuichiro Hayashi, Yoshiaki Tagawa, Satoshi Yawata, Shigetada Nakanishi and Kazuo Funabiki

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08191.x

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      Controlling neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution is desired for studying how neural circuit dynamics control animal behavior. Conventional methods for manipulating neural activity, such as electrical microstimulation or pharmacological blockade, have poor spatial and/or temporal resolution.

  2. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. OBITUARY
    1. A yeast two-hybrid screen reveals that osteopontin associates with MAP1A and MAP1B in addition to other proteins linked to microtubule stability, apoptosis and protein degradation in the human brain (pages 2733–2742)

      Philip Long, Parwez Samnakay, Peter Jenner and Sarah Rose

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08189.x

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      Osteopontin (OPN) expression is reduced in surviving dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra (SN) in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and protects against MPP+-induced cell death in primary mesencephalic cultures and 6-OHDA-induced cell loss in the rat, while inactivation of OPN aggravates cell death. OPN is thought to act through interactions with integrin receptors or CD44.

    2. GABA mediates the network activity-dependent facilitation of axonal outgrowth from the newborn granule cells in the early postnatal rat hippocampus (pages 2743–2752)

      Hyunsu Lee, Doyun Lee, Chang-Hwan Park, Won-Kyung Ho and Suk-Ho Lee

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08192.x

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      Excitatory GABAergic input is a key player in activity-dependent regulation of newborn granule cell (GC) development. We show here that GABA and L-type calcium channels mediate Ca2+ signals evoked by hippocampal network activity during the first post-mitotic week (A). Inhibition of any step in the signaling pathway, network activity [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] GABA [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] L-type channels, suppressed the axonal outgrowth (B), suggesting such Ca2+ signaling promotes axonal outgrowth of newborn GCs.

    3. Resonance properties of different neuronal populations in the immature mouse neocortex (pages 2753–2762)

      Haiyan Sun, Heiko J. Luhmann and Werner Kilb

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08196.x

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      In vivo recordings in the immature neocortex revealed oscillatory activity patterns. To investigate whether subthreshold resonance contributes to immature network oscillations, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from four visually identified neuron populations in slices from early postnatal mice. Our experiments revealed subthreshold resonance in all investigated neuron populations, with I(h) or t-type Ca2+ currents contributing to the subthreshold resonance.

    4. Sex-dependent differences in behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis after irradiation to the young mouse brain (pages 2763–2772)

      Karolina Roughton, Marie Kalm and Klas Blomgren

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08197.x

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      The upper panel shows a representative microphotograph of BrdU+ cells in the GCL from adult control mouse brain. The lower panel shows the number of BrdU+ cells in the GCL 4 months after IR. There was a significant interaction between gender and treatment showing that BrdU incorporation was more affected in irradiated females than males. Females not subjected to IR showed higher BrdU incorporation than males not subjected to IR. Data shown as mean ± SEM. **P < 0.01 for interaction between treatment and gender.

    5. Altered spatial learning, cortical plasticity and hippocampal anatomy in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia-related endophenotypes (pages 2773–2781)

      P. Leon Brown, Paul D. Shepard, Greg I. Elmer, Sara Stockman, Rebecca McFarland, Cheryl L. Mayo, Jean Lud Cadet, Irina N. Krasnova, Martin Greenwald, Carrie Schoonover and Michael W. Vogel

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08204.x

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      Rats exposed to the DNA methylating agent methylazoxymethanol (MAM) on E17 show deficits as adults that model some of the neuropathological and behavioral changes observed in schizophrenia. It is presently unknown whether these changes generalize to other antimitotic agents administered later in development. Here we show that exposure to the antimitotic agent Ara-C between E19.5 and E20.5 recapitulates some of the changes observed in MAM-treated animals and in patients with schizophrenia.

  3. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. OBITUARY
    1. You have free access to this content
      Abnormal modulation of corticospinal excitability in adults with Asperger’s syndrome (pages 2782–2788)

      Lindsay Oberman, Mark Eldaief, Shirley Fecteau, Fritz Ifert-Miller, Jose Maria Tormos and Alvaro Pascual-Leone

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08172.x

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      Results indicate that modulation of corticospinal excitability following theta burst stimulation (TBS) is prolonged in adults with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) suggesting possible abnormalities in plasticity mechanisms. The duration of the TBS-induced modulation enabled the reliable classification of a second cohort as AS or neurotypical. We suggest that this finding might provide a valuable future diagnostic biomarker and ultimately offer a target for novel therapeutic interventions.

    2. Characterization of a rat model of Huntington’s disease based on targeted expression of mutant huntingtin in the forebrain using adeno-associated viral vectors (pages 2789–2800)

      Sanaz Gabery, Muhammad U. Sajjad, Sofia Hult, Rana Soylu, Deniz Kirik and Åsa Petersén

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08193.x

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      Injections of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 5 (rAAV5) expressing an 853 amino acid fragment of huntingtin (htt) with either 79 (mutant) or 18 (wild-type) glutamines (Q) in the dorsal striatum of neonatal rats lead to widespread expression of htt in the forebrain. Neuropathological analysis at 6 months showed long-term expression of the GFP transgene (used as a marker protein) and htt inclusions in the cerebral cortex of rats with the rAAV5-htt-79Q vectors

    3. Visual capabilities and cortical maps in BALB/c mice (pages 2801–2811)

      Naira Yeritsyan, Konrad Lehmann, Oliver Puk, Jochen Graw and Siegrid Löwel

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08195.x

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      Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in BALB/c mice were found to be far below those of pigmented animals. As measured by intrinsic signal optical imaging, visual cortical retinotopic maps of the contralateral eye were mostly normal, but ipsilateral eye maps had an irregular topography in BALB/c mice. In addition, visual cortex was more strongly dominated by the contralateral eye than in the pigmented strain. Thus, the lower visual performance and modified ocular dominance should be taken into account when using BALB/c for behavioural tests.

    4. Long-range temporal correlations in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson’s disease (pages 2812–2821)

      F. U. Hohlefeld, J. Huebl, C. Huchzermeyer, G.-H. Schneider, T. Schönecker, A. A. Kühn, G. Curio and V. V. Nikulin

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08198.x

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      The present study demonstrated that neuronal oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are characterised by long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) extending up to 50 s, which were found to be decreased after levodopa withdrawal in the beta (13–35 Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (approximately 300 Hz). This might indicate limited information processing in the dopamine-depleted basal ganglia, implying LRTC as a biomarker of pathological neuronal processes in PD.

    5. The habenula couples the dopaminergic and the serotonergic systems: application to depression in Parkinson’s disease (pages 2822–2829)

      Daphna Sourani, Renana Eitan, Noam Gordon and Gadi Goelman

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08200.x

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      A high percentage of patients with Parkinson’s disease suffer from depression in addition to their motor disabilities. However, the etiology of this depression and its relation to Parkinson’s disease are unknown.

    6. Consistent sequential activity across diverse forms of UP states under ketamine anesthesia (pages 2830–2838)

      Artur Luczak and Peter Barthó

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08201.x

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      Under ketamine-xylazile anesthesia, the cortex shows coordinated bursts of spiking activity (UP states). Despite a large diversity of UP states, the sequence of activation amongst neurons is similar.

    7. Serotonin transporter inhibition attenuates l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia without compromising l-DOPA efficacy in hemi-parkinsonian rats (pages 2839–2848)

      Christopher Bishop, Jessica A. George, William Buchta, Adam A. Goldenberg, Mohamed Mohamed, Sando O. Dickinson, Satie Eissa and Karen L. Eskow Jaunarajs

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08202.x

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      Long-term l-DOPA replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease often leads to the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Growing evidence suggests that serotonin receptors may constitute therapeutic targets for the reduction of these abnormal involuntary movements. The current work demonstrates that serotonin transporter inhibition can also attenuate l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia without affecting l-DOPA efficacy.

    8. Pattern-motion selective responses in MT, MST and the pulvinar of humans (pages 2849–2858)

      M. Y. Villeneuve, B. Thompson, R. F. Hess and C. Casanova

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08205.x

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      Plaid stimuli are often used to investigate the mechanisms involved in the integration and segregation of motion information. Considering the perceptual importance of such mechanisms, only a very limited number of visual brain areas have been found to be specifically involved in motion integration.

    9. Disruption of neuropsin mRNA expression via RNA interference facilitates the photoinduced increase in thyrotropin-stimulating subunit β in birds (pages 2859–2865)

      Tyler J. Stevenson and Gregory F. Ball

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08209.x

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      Brain photoreceptors are critical for light dependent regulation of reproduction in birds. We employed RNAi methods that targeted a strong candidate for this light detection, Neuropsin (Opn5). We show that RNAi of Opn5 facilitated the photoinduced increase in TSHβ mRNA. This study provides a functional link between light detection by a brain photoreceptor and the avian neuroendocrine system.

  4. OBITUARY

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. OBITUARY
    1. Jan Bureš (page 2866)

      Lynn Nadel and Andre Fenton

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12013

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