European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 3

February 2013

Volume 37, Issue 3

Pages 339–507

  1. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein-coupled modulatory actions of motilin on K+ channels and postsynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors in mouse medial vestibular nuclear neurons (pages 339–350)

      Hiroshi Todaka, Tetsuya Tatsukawa, Tsutomu Hashikawa, Yuchio Yanagawa, Katsuei Shibuki and Soichi Nagao

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12051

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      Motilin, the gastroenteric hormone, decreases the discharge frequencies of action potentials and enhances IPSC amplitudes in a group of medial vestibular nuclear neurons by modulating the postsynaptic SK-channels and GABA-A receptors, respectively. These motilin actions are mediated through GPCR. Motilin may be co-released with GABA from floccular Purkinje cell axon terminals to affect the activity of postsynaptic medial vestibular neurons which relay the ocular reflexes.

    2. Regulation of synaptic currents by mGluR2 at reciprocal synapses in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb (pages 351–358)

      Mutsuo Taniguchi, Mineto Yokoi, Yoshiaki Shinohara, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Shigetada Nakanishi and Hideto Kaba

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12059

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      The throughput of information from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) to downstream structures is controlled by reciprocal dendrodendritic inhibition of mitral cells by granule cells. Given the high expression levels of mGluR2, a metabotropic glutamate receptor, in the AOB and the fact that the activation of mGluR2 permits the formation of a specific olfactory memory, we reasoned that mGluR2 might play an important role in regulating dendrodendritic inhibition.

    3. Purinergic transmission and transglial signaling between neuron somata in the dorsal root ganglion (pages 359–365)

      Gabriela M. Rozanski, Qi Li, Hyunhee Kim and Elise F. Stanley

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12082

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      We report “Sandwich Synapse” type transmission in which transglial signaling occurs between two closely-apposed neuron somata separated by a single intervening glial cell.

    4. Bicuculline- and neurosteroid-sensitive tonic chloride current in rat hypoglossal motoneurons and atypical dual effect of SR95531 (pages 366–379)

      Dominique Chesnoy-Marchais

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12074

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      Hypoglossal motoneurons patch-clamp recordings revealed a bicuculline-sensitive tonic current, which can be enhanced by an agonist of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors and by neurosteroids, supporting previous evidence for a bicuculline-sensitive tonic inhibition. The GABAA antagonist SR95531 blocks this current but also activates another sustained anionic current, bicuculline-resistant and sensitive to a GABAC antagonist. These results reveal new targets for the protection of these fragile neurons.

    5. A survey of spinal collateral actions of feline ventral spinocerebellar tract neurons (pages 380–392)

      P. Geborek, E. Nilsson, F. Bolzoni and E. Jankowska

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12060

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      The study demonstrates that ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT) neurons giving off axon collaterals terminating within the lumbosacral enlargement act on hindlimb motoneurons via premotor interneurons in reflex pathways from muscle afferents. It indicates that VSCT neurons might contribute to motor control by modulating spinal activity in advance of any control exerted via the cerebellar loop.

  2. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Sound-specific plasticity in the primary auditory cortex as induced by the cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (pages 393–399)

      Feng Luo and Jun Yan

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12046

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      Brain cholinergic modulation is essential for learning-induced plasticity of the auditory cortex. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is an important cholinergic nucleus in the brainstem and appears to be involved in learning and cortical plasticity.

    2. Rapid visual stimulation increases extrasynaptic glutamate receptor expression but not visual-evoked potentials in the adult rat primary visual cortex (pages 400–406)

      M. J. Eckert, D. Guévremont, J. M. Williams and W. C. Abraham

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12053

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      We tested whether rapid visual stimulation could induce a sensory long-term potentiation. Visual evoked potentials were recorded from urethane-anesthetised rats and after a stable baseline period, a photic tetanus was delivered. There was no evidence of a sensory LTP despite a number of manipulations of experimental variables. However, visual stimulation increased extrasynaptic glutamate receptor expression (GluA1, GluN1) in the visual cortex suggesting that visual cortex was primed and that further visual stimulation across days is necessary for sensory LTP.

    3. Impaired response to hypoxia in the respiratory center is a major cause of neonatal death of the PACAP-knockout mouse (pages 407–416)

      Satoru Arata, Tomoya Nakamachi, Hiroshi Onimaru, Hitoshi Hashimoto and Seiji Shioda

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12054

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      We report on the presence of abnormal respiratory activity in PACAP−/− mice under hypoxic conditions, which provides a basis for the SIDS-like phenotype. Figure shows effect of hypoxia on respiratory activity in PACAP-deficient mice. Respiration activities under either hypoxic (5% O2) or hypercapnic conditions (8% CO2) were compared to that of normoxia by plethysmography at P7. Note that hypoxia caused respiratory arrest in PACAP−/− mice.

    4. Segmental disinhibition suppresses C-fiber inputs to the rat superficial medullary dorsal horn via the activation of GABAB receptors (pages 417–428)

      Céline Melin, Florian Jacquot, Radhouane Dallel and Alain Artola

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12048

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      Blocking glycine and/or GABA(A) receptors in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) strongly facilitates Aβ- and Aδ-fiber-evoked polysynaptic field potentials but, conversely, inhibits C-fiber ones. Suppression of C-fiber field potentials is prevented by blocking segmental GABA(B) receptors. Activation of A-fiber primary afferents might thus inhibit C-fiber inputs to the MDH through polysynaptic excitatory pathways, last-order GABAergic interneurons and presynaptic GABA(B) receptors on C-fiber terminals.

    5. Downregulation of cannabinoid receptor 1 from neuropeptide Y interneurons in the basal ganglia of patients with Huntington's disease and mouse models (pages 429–440)

      Eric A. Horne, Jonathan Coy, Katie Swinney, Susan Fung, Allison E. T. Cherry, William R. Marrs, Alipi V. Naydenov, Yi Hsing Lin, Xiaocui Sun, C. Dirk Keene, Eric Grouzmann, Paul Muchowski, Gillian P. Bates, Ken Mackie and Nephi Stella

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12045

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      Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1 receptor) regulates several neuronal functions, including neurotransmitter release and neuronal viability, and is one of the earliest down-regulated proteins in Huntington's disease (HD). We show here that of CB1 receptor expression is down-regulated in both indirect pathway medium spiny neurons and NPY/nNOS+ interneurons in the striatum of HD mouse models and patients. CB1 receptor down-regulation in NPY/nNOS+ interneurons correlates with the presence of micro-aggregates of mutant huntingtin protein, and prevents cannabinoid mediated CREB phosphorylation in NPY/nNOS+ interneurons. CB1 receptor loss at NPY/nNOS+ interneurons could contribute to the altered GABAergic signaling present in the striatum of HD patients and ultimately to the pathogenesis of HD.

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      Benefit of multiple sessions of perilesional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for an effective rehabilitation of visuospatial function (pages 441–454)

      Linda Afifi, R. Jarrett Rushmore and Antoni Valero-Cabré

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12055

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      Non-invasive neurostimulation techniques have been used alone or in conjunction with rehabilitation therapy to treat the neurological sequelae of brain damage with rather variable therapeutic outcomes. One potential factor limiting a consistent success for such techniques may be the few sessions carried out in patients, despite reports that their accrual may play a key role in alleviating neurological deficits long-term.

  3. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. NEUROSYSTEMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
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    2. Featured Article
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      Adolescent gain in positive valence of a socially relevant stimulus: engagement of the mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry (pages 457–468)

      Margaret R. Bell, Kayla C. De Lorme, Rayson J. Figueira, Deborah A. Kashy and Cheryl L. Sisk

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12058

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      Adolescence is a time of major behavioral change, and responses to social cues must mature to promote adult-like behaviors. Juvenile hamsters do not show sexual behavior with a receptive female. Here, we show that sexually-naïve adult male hamsters find female pheromones rewarding, but juvenile hamsters do not. Moreover, neural activation of the mesocorticolimbic pathway in response to female pheromones, as indicated by Fos-immunoreactivity, is immature in juvenile male hamsters.

    3. Exercise-induced stress resistance is independent of exercise controllability and the medial prefrontal cortex (pages 469–478)

      Benjamin N. Greenwood, Katie G. Spence, Danielle M. Crevling, Peter J. Clark, Wendy C. Craig and Monika Fleshner

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12044

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      Controllability of exercise was manipulated in rats using a novel forced wheel running paradigm closely resembling the pattern of voluntary exercise. Both voluntary and forced exercise prevented the behavioral effects of stress independently of the prefrontal cortex, a region sensitive to controllable experiences. These data suggest that exercise controllability is not a factor critical for conferring exercise-induced stress resistance, and that forced exercise may still benefit mental health.

    4. Influence of chronic amphetamine treatment and acute withdrawal on serotonin synthesis and clearance mechanisms in the rat ventral hippocampus (pages 479–490)

      Jeffrey L. Barr, Jamie L. Scholl, Rajeshwari R. Solanki, Michael J. Watt, Christopher A. Lowry, Kenneth J. Renner and Gina L. Forster

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12050

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      Amphetamine withdrawal in both humans and rats is associated with increased anxiety states, which are thought to contribute to drug relapse. Serotonin in the ventral hippocampus mediates affective behaviors, and reduced serotonin levels in this region are observed in rat models of high anxiety, including during withdrawal from chronic amphetamine.

    5. Daily exposure to cold phase-shifts the circadian clock of neonatal rats in vivo (pages 491–497)

      Tomoko Yoshikawa, Ami Matsuno, Yujiro Yamanaka, Shin-ya Nishide, Sato Honma and Ken-ichi Honma

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12052

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      Maternal rhythms entrain the prenatal and neonatal circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) before light entrainment is established. However, the responsible time cues for maternal entrainment are not identified.

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      Hemodynamic responses in amygdala and hippocampus distinguish between aversive and neutral cues during Pavlovian fear conditioning in behaving rats (pages 498–507)

      Stephen B. McHugh, Andre Marques-Smith, Jennifer Li, J. N. P. Rawlins, John Lowry, Michael Conway, Gary Gilmour, Mark Tricklebank and David M. Bannerman

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12057

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      Amygdala and hippocampal tissue oxygen (TO2) signals were recorded from freely-moving rats during discriminative Pavlovian fear conditioning. TO2 signals provide a close surrogate for the BOLD-fMRI signal. TO2 signals in both regions discriminated between conditioned aversive (CS+) and neutral (CS−) cues. These data challenge recent claims that hemodynamic signals cannot detect the different patterns of neuronal activity evoked by CS+ vs. CS− stimuli.

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