European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 8

April 2013

Volume 37, Issue 8

Pages 1203–1367

  1. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. You have free access to this content
      Viral transduction of the neonatal brain delivers controllable genetic mosaicism for visualising and manipulating neuronal circuits in vivo (pages 1203–1220)

      Ji-Yoen Kim, Ryan T. Ash, Carolina Ceballos-Diaz, Yona Levites, Todd E. Golde, Stelios M. Smirnakis and Joanna L. Jankowsky

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12126

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      Freehand injection of recombinant AAV into the neonatal mouse brain offers a fast and easy way to attain widespread genetic manipulation of neurons throughout the brain. Rapid onset and year-long persistence of viral expression permits study of both critical periods and aging. Viral titer can be used to control mosaicism, and multiple viruses can be co-injected for bigenic expression. The technique's simplicity and the availability of viral reagents should facilitate a range of experiments.

  2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Transglial transmission at the dorsal root ganglion sandwich synapse: glial cell to postsynaptic neuron communication (pages 1221–1228)

      Gabriela M. Rozanski, Qi Li and Elise F. Stanley

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12132

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      The DRG contains a subset of neuronal somata ‘Sandwich Synapse’ pairs separated by single glial membrane septum. Stimulation of one soma triggers a delayed response in its pair (EJN 2012a) via a bi-synaptic, neuron-glia-neuron pathway (diagram). Neuron-to-glial transmission is purinergic via P2Y2 receptors (EJN 2012b). Here we show the glial-to-neuron synapse is glutamatergic via NMDA receptors and is blocked by AP3 or ifenprodil (lower panel), completing the synaptic pathway.

    2. Mixed miniature postsynaptic currents resulting from co-release of glycine and GABA recorded from glycinergic neurons in the neonatal respiratory network (pages 1229–1241)

      Jamilur Rahman, A. Tobias Latal, Stefanie Besser, Johannes Hirrlinger and Swen Hülsmann

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12136

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      Inhibitory neurons are involved in the generation and patterning of the respiratory rhythm in the adult animal. However, the role of glycinergic neurons in the respiratory rhythm in the developing network is still not understood.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dopamine suppresses persistent network activity via D1-like dopamine receptors in rat medial entorhinal cortex (pages 1242–1247)

      Elizabeth W. Mayne, Michael T. Craig, Chris J. McBain and Ole Paulsen

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12125

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      Cortical neurons show persistent activity in the form of active ‘UP’ states punctuated by quiescent ‘DOWN’ states, a phenomenon linked to working memory. UP states are generated by fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, but how they are affected by neuromodulators has been less studied. Here we show that dopamine, also implicated in working memory, can strongly and reversibly suppress persistent activity via a mechanism involving D1-like dopamine receptors.

    4. Plasticity and metaplasticity of adult rat hippocampal mossy fibers induced by neurotrophin-3 (pages 1248–1259)

      L. E. Ramos-Languren and M. L. Escobar

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12141

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      During the last decade, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) has emerged as one potent mediator of synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that intrahippocampal microinfusion of NT-3 induces a long-lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy in the DG-CA3 projection accompanied by a MF structural reorganization of adult rats in vivo. Furthermore, NT-3 modifies the ability of the MF pathway to present subsequent LTP by HFS, and modifies the structural reorganization pattern.

  3. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. GABAergic inhibition through synergistic astrocytic neuronal interaction transiently decreases vasopressin neuronal activity during hypoosmotic challenge (pages 1260–1269)

      Yu-Feng Wang, Min-Yu Sun, Qiuling Hou and Kathryn A. Hamilton

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12137

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      Inhibition of GABA transporters by β-alanine that possibly released from astrocytes increases GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs and tonic inhibitory currents, leading to a decrease in firing rate of vasopressin neurons at the early stage of hypoosmotic challenge (A and B). An increased GABA package by VGATs in neurons, and relocation of this molecule and its packed GABA guided by GFAP in astrocytes accompany the recovery/rebound of neuronal firing activity (C).

    2. Role of GABAergic inhibition in shaping the spatial frequency tuning of neurons and its contrast dependency in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of cat (pages 1270–1283)

      Akihiro Kimura, Satoshi Shimegi, Shin'ichiro Hara, Masahiro Okamoto and Hiromichi Sato

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12149

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      To understand how GABAergic inhibition contributes to the elaboration of spatial frequency (SF) tuning of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), we examined the effects of microiontophoretic administration of bicuculline methiodide (BIC) and gabazine, both antagonists of GABAA receptors, on visual responses to grating stimuli with high or low contrasts. BIC administration changed the shape of the SF tuning curve of the spike response from band-pass to low-pass.

    3. Relaxin-3 innervation of the intergeniculate leaflet of the rat thalamus – neuronal tract-tracing and in vitro electrophysiological studies (pages 1284–1294)

      Anna Blasiak, Tomasz Blasiak, Marian H. Lewandowski, Mohammed Akhter Hossain, John D. Wade and Andrew L. Gundlach

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12155

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      Behavioural state is controlled by a range of neural systems sensitive to internal and external stimuli. The relaxin-3/RXFP3 system has emerged as a putative ascending arousal network with putative involvement in regulation of stress responses, neuroendocrine control, feeding and metabolism, circadian activity and cognition.

    4. Musicians show general enhancement of complex sound encoding and better inhibition of irrelevant auditory change in music: an ERP study (pages 1295–1307)

      Natalya Kaganovich, Jihyun Kim, Caryn Herring, Jennifer Schumaker, Megan MacPherson and Christine Weber-Fox

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12110

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      Musicians showed a larger N1 ERP component not only to musical and vocal sounds, but also to their spectrally-rotated versions (ROT), suggesting that musical training is associated with a general enhancement in the neural encoding of complex sounds. The musicians' ability to ignore irrelevant auditory change surpassed that of non-musician, but only when distractors were music sounds, pointing to the role of familiarity with a specific timbre in this skill.

    5. Differential effects of site-specific knockdown of estrogen receptor α in the medial amygdala, medial pre-optic area, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus on sexual and aggressive behavior of male mice (pages 1308–1319)

      Kazuhiro Sano, Mumeko C. Tsuda, Sergei Musatov, Toshiro Sakamoto and Sonoko Ogawa

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12131

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      We found that knocking down of ERα using AAV-shERα in the MPOA reduced sexual but not aggressive behavior while that in the VMN reduced both behaviors in gonadally intact adult male mice. Knockdown of ERα in the MeA did not alter either behavior. These results indicate that ERα in both the MPOA and VMN is required for testosterone to facilitate male sexual behavior, whereas ERα only in the VMN is required for testosterone to facilitate male aggressive behavior among these three brain regions.

    6. The dependencies of fronto-parietal BOLD responses evoked by covert visual search suggest eye-centred coding (pages 1320–1329)

      A. Atabaki, P.W. Dicke, H.-O. Karnath and P. Thier

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12139

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      In a fMRI paradigm we varied the direction of eye-gaze during covert visual search in order to dissociate, whether covert search unfolds in an eye- or non-eye-centred frame of reference. Not only BOLD responses in the well-known retinotopically organized visual areas but also activity in a region in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) as well as the right frontal eye field (FEF) reflected covert search in contralateral eye-centred space. In other words, the IPS and the right FEF, key constituents of a parieto-frontal network for covert visual search, operate in an eye-centred frame of reference.

    7. Coherent neocortical 40-Hz oscillations are not present during REM sleep (pages 1330–1339)

      Santiago Castro, Atilio Falconi, Michael H. Chase and Pablo Torterolo

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12143

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      During cognitive processes there are extensive interactions between various regions of the cerebral cortex. Oscillations in the gamma frequency band (≈ 40 Hz) of the elecroencephalogram (EEG) are involved in the binding of spatially separated but temporally correlated neural events, which results in a unified perceptual experience.

  4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Yohimbine anxiogenesis in the elevated plus maze requires hindbrain noradrenergic neurons that target the anterior ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pages 1340–1349)

      Huiyuan Zheng and Linda Rinaman

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12123

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      The α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine (YO) increases transmitter release from noradrenergic (NA) terminals in cortical and subcortical brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). YO activates the HPA stress axis and is potently anxiogenic in rats and humans.

    2. High-fat diet acutely affects circadian organisation and eating behavior (pages 1350–1356)

      Julie S. Pendergast, Katrina L. Branecky, William Yang, Kate L. J. Ellacott, Kevin D. Niswender and Shin Yamazaki

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12133

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      The effects of 1 week of high-fat diet consumption on tissue and behavioral circadian rhythms in mice were investigated. The phase of the liver rhythm was advanced, while rhythms in other tissues were not affected by high-fat diet. High-fat diet also immediately altered the daily rhythm of eating behavior. As the rhythm of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was not affected, the brain nuclei mediating the effect of high-fat diet on eating behavior are likely downstream of the SCN.

    3. Enkephalin knockdown in the central amygdala nucleus reduces unconditioned fear and anxiety (pages 1357–1367)

      Jean-François Poulin, Patrick Bérubé, Sylvie Laforest and Guy Drolet

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12134

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      ENK are highly expressed in the CeA where several lines of evidence point to a potential role in the modulation of fear and anxiety. ENK knockdown in this region by using a lentiviral expressing shRNA reduced anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. In the contextual fear paradigm, a reduction in freezing during the acquisition phase was also observed in knockdown animals, with no effect on the retention of the conditioned response.

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