European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 9

May 2013

Volume 37, Issue 9

Pages 1369–1549

  1. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Effect of glutamate receptor antagonists on migrating neural progenitor cells (pages 1369–1382)

      Linda C. Jansson, Lauri Louhivuori, Henna-Kaisa Wigren, Tommy Nordström, Verna Louhivuori, Maija L. Castrén and Karl E. Åkerman

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12152

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      In neurosphere-derived migrating cells metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 dominates in radial glial cell and its inhibition reduces the length of radial processes and causes enhanced motility and forward progress of neurons and reduces changes in direction. AMPA receptors are mainly present in neurons and their inhibition severely reduces the forward motion of neurons but enhances the extension of radial processes.

    2. Suppression of inhibitory GABAergic transmission by cAMP signaling pathway: alterations in learning and memory mutants (pages 1383–1393)

      Archan Ganguly and Daewoo Lee

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12144

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      Drosophila inhibitory GABAergic postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) are suppressed by forskolin (FSK) and PKA activation (see below).This regulation of GABAergic IPSCs is altered in the cAMP pathway and short-term memory mutants dunce and rutabaga, with both showing altered GABA receptor sensitivity.

    3. Motor activity affects adult skeletal muscle re-innervation acting via tyrosine kinase receptors (pages 1394–1403)

      Stefano Sartini, Fanny Bartolini, Patrizia Ambrogini, Michele Betti, Stefano Ciuffoli, Davide Lattanzi, Michael Di Palma and Riccardo Cuppini

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12130

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      During muscle re-innervation after nerve crush, running activity increases multiple innervation (A) of adult rat soleus muscle cells with consequent faster muscle re-innervation (B). We found increased levels of muscle BDNF in runner rats that, acting via TrkB receptors (C), induced axon sprouting to re-innervate skeletal muscle (D). The up-regulation of muscle BDNF expression by motor activity may be a tool with applications in functional rehabilitation programs of injured patients.

    4. Reelin and the Cdc42/Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX/Arhgef6 promote dendritic Golgi translocation in hippocampal neurons (pages 1404–1412)

      Maurice Meseke, Georg Rosenberger and Eckart Förster

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12153

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      In the cerebral cortex of reeler mutant mice lacking reelin expression, neurons are malpositioned and display misoriented apical dendrites. Neuronal migration defects in reeler have been studied in great detail, but it is poorly understood how misorientation of apical dendrites is related to reelin deficiency.

  2. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The brain's specialized systems for aesthetic and perceptual judgment (pages 1413–1420)

      T. Ishizu and S. Zeki

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12135

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      We address neurobiologically the age-old question of whether aesthetic judgments are distinct from perceptual judgments and show that the former engage neural pathways that are not engaged during perceptual judgments; moreover two mobilize different components of the brain's motor system. It thus seems that there is a functional specialization within the brain's judgment system.

    2. Brain networks underlying mental imagery of auditory and visual information (pages 1421–1434)

      Mikhail Zvyagintsev, Benjamin Clemens, Natalya Chechko, Krystyna A. Mathiak, Alexander T. Sack and Klaus Mathiak

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12140

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      An fMRI study to reveal supramodal and modality-specific networks of mental imagery for auditory and visual information was conducted. A common supramodal brain network independent of imagery modality, two separate modality-specific networks for auditory and visual imagery and a common deactivation network were identified. Among others, supramodal network consists of the areas involved in multisensory integration. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mental imagery.

    3. Mediofrontal event-related potentials following observed actions reflect an action prediction error (pages 1435–1440)

      Stefan Kobza and Christian Bellebaum

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12138

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      Both execution and observation of erroneous actions have been shown to increase the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as reflected in characteristic event-related potential (ERP) components labelled error-related negativity (ERN) and observer error-related negativity (oERN), respectively. Whereas these labels implicate a modulation of both components by response accuracy, recent findings suggest a more general involvement of the ACC in the detection of unexpected events.

    4. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of visuomotor processing in a virtual reality-based paradigm: Rehabilitation Gaming System (pages 1441–1447)

      D. Prochnow, S. Bermúdez i Badia, J. Schmidt, A. Duff, S. Brunheim, R. Kleiser, R. J. Seitz and P. F. M. J. Verschure

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12157

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      The novel Rehabilitation Gaming system (RGS) employs a virtual reality gaming environment for training of visuomotor coordination in patients with neurological diseases such as stroke. The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas involved in performing the RGS gaming task. We found that imagery of target catching activated motor control areas to a greater extent than active catching involving, in particular, the inferior frontal gyrus and the supplementary motor area.

    5. Neural processing of high and low spatial frequency information in faces changes across development: qualitative changes in face processing during adolescence (pages 1448–1457)

      Judith C. Peters, Petra Vlamings and Chantal Kemner

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12172

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      Unlike children, adults can skillfully process configural information in low spatial frequency (SF) ranges for fast and effective face perception. Our ERP results show that face processing has a protracted maturational course into adolescence, and is dependent on changes in SF processing. During adolescence, sensitivity to configural cues is developed, which aids the fast and holistic processing that is so special for faces.

    6. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening (pages 1458–1469)

      Daniel A. Abrams, Srikanth Ryali, Tianwen Chen, Parag Chordia, Amirah Khouzam, Daniel J. Levitin and Vinod Menon

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12173

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      Little is known about common brain systems that support the integration of extended, naturalistic music stimuli. We show that music synchronizes brain response across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, auditory cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. Results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences.

  3. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Kynurenic acid, by targeting α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, modulates extracellular GABA levels in the rat striatum in vivo (pages 1470–1477)

      Sarah Beggiato, Tiziana Antonelli, Maria Cristina Tomasini, Sergio Tanganelli, Kjell Fuxe, Robert Schwarcz and Luca Ferraro

      Version of Record online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12160

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      Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an astrocyte-derived, non-competitive antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and inhibits the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) competitively. The present in vivo microdialysis study provides evidence that fluctuations in endogenous KYNA levels tonically modulate extracellular glutamate and GABA levels in the rat striatum, mainly by acting on α7nAChRs. This effects may be relevant for a number of physiological and pathological processes involving the basal ganglia.

    2. Canonical transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated hair cell Ca2+ entry regulates sound transduction and auditory neurotransmission (pages 1478–1486)

      Ann Chi Yan Wong, Lutz Birnbaumer and Gary D. Housley

      Version of Record online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12158

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      Ca2+ microfluorimetry indicated that cochlear hair cells lacking the TRPC3 ion channel subunit had significantly reduced Ca2+ entry to balance cytosolic Ca2+ depletion via PMCA2a Ca2+ pumps. Thus hair cell cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis was disrupted, likely affecting membrane conductance and sound transduction. This postulate was supported by enhanced hearing sensitivity (hyperacusis) in the TRPC3 knockout mice, determined by auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission.

    3. Trial-by-trial reliability of responses in the primary visual cortex on binocular disparity depends on stimulus order (pages 1487–1500)

      Vasily Vorobyov

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12156

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      An association of the detrimental effect of monocular deprivation on binocular vision with reduced reliability of neuronal responses in the primary visual cortex has been shown on randomly presented binocular stimuli (Vorobyov et al., 2007). To examine this effect on biologically relevant signals, binocular gratings of varying relative phase disparity were presented in sequential order, simulating motion, to 55 cats with various types of daily visual experience.

    4. The influence of static eye and head position on the ventriloquist effect (pages 1501–1510)

      Denise C. P. B. M. Van Barneveld and Marc M. Van Wanrooij

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12176

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      Does the ventriloquist effect operate in a common reference frame by correctly taking into account eye and head position? Here we demonstrate that different initial head and eye orientations are accurately and appropriately incorporated into an audiovisual response. Effectively, sounds and images are perceptually fused according to their physical locations in space independent of an observer's point of view.

    5. Lateral reticular nucleus modulates the cardiosomatic reflex evoked by intrapericardial capsaicin in the rat (pages 1511–1518)

      Man Han, Xiao-Hua Liu, Na Sun, Jian-Qing Du, Juan-Xia Zhu, Qiang Li and Jing-Shi Tang

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12170

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      Electrical or chemical stimulation of the LRN inhibited the intrapericardial capsaicin-induced CSR; Transections of the DLFs reduced the LRN stimulation-induced inhibition of the CSR; Inhibitory effect of vagal afferent on the CSR is produced at least in part through activation of the LRN-DFL-spinal descending pathway; Spinal α2 and 5-HT receptors participate in this descending inhibition.

  4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Dopaminergic and GABA-ergic markers of impulsivity in rats: evidence for anatomical localisation in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex (pages 1519–1528)

      Bianca Jupp, Daniele Caprioli, Niel Saigal, Ingrid Reverte, Saurav Shrestha, Paul Cumming, Barry J. Everitt, Trevor W. Robbins and Jeffrey W. Dalley

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12146

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      While reduced D2/D3 receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) has been shown to be predictive for impulsivity it is unknown whether this is restricted to the shell or core sub regions of the NAcb and further whether other brain systems are also involved. Using ex vivo autoradiography we show that binding for D2/D3 and the dopamine transporter is reduced in the NAcb shell accompanied by reduced binding of D1 in the NAcb core and GABA(A) in the anterior cingulate cortex of impulsive rats.

    2. Dopamine or opioid stimulation of nucleus accumbens similarly amplify cue-triggered ‘wanting’ for reward: entire core and medial shell mapped as substrates for PIT enhancement (pages 1529–1540)

      Susana Peciña and Kent C. Berridge

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12174

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      Surges in the level of motivation elicited by reward cues (i.e., changes cue-triggered ‘wanting’) are mediated by opioid and-or dopamine stimulations that increase reactivity of mesocorticolimbic brain circuits involving the nucleus accumbens, which dynamically compute incentive salience for a cue. Nearly the entire medial shell and the entire core can similarly mediate dopamine and opioid enhancements.

    3. Galanin-induced decreases in nucleus accumbens/striatum excitatory postsynaptic potentials and morphine conditioned place preference require both galanin receptor 1 and galanin receptor 2 (pages 1541–1549)

      Emily B. Einstein, Yukiko Asaka, Mark F. Yeckel, Michael J. Higley and Marina R. Picciotto

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12151

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      Galanin modulates morphine's behavioral effects in mice. This study identifies direct actions on excitation of striatal neurons and identifies the galanin receptor (GalR) subtypes involved. Galanin decreases the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials in medium spiny neurons of wild type mice, but not mice lacking the GalR1 or GalR2 subtype. Neither GalR1 nor GalR2 knockout mice exhibit conditioned place preference for morphine. Thus both phenotypes depend on GalR1 and GalR2.

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