European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 11

December 2013

Volume 38, Issue 11

Pages 3529–3678

  1. REVIEWS

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEWS
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1. Synaptic vesicle protein 2A: basic facts and role in synaptic function (pages 3529–3539)

      Julieta Griselda Mendoza-Torreblanca, América Vanoye-Carlo, Bryan Víctor Phillips-Farfán, Liliana Carmona-Aparicio and Gisela Gómez-Lira

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12360

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      SV2A protein is important for synaptic function in both normal and pathological conditions. The evidence suggests that SV2A could be a vesicular transporter, regulate synaptic exocytosis as a gel matrix or modulate synaptotagmin-1 (SYT-1) activity. Altered SV2A expression in excitatory and inhibitory synapses causes pathological conditions such as epilepsy.

    2. Recent progress in migraine pathophysiology: role of cortical spreading depression and magnetic resonance imaging (pages 3540–3551)

      Sonu Bhaskar, Kolsoum Saeidi, Parvin Borhani and Houshang Amiri

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12368

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      We critically evaluate the scientific basis of various theories underlying migraine pathophysiology; and draw insights from brain imaging approaches that have unraveled the prevalence of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in migraine.

  2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEWS
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1.  

      Commentary on Featured article
    2. Featured Article
      Blocking brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits injury-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA3 neurons (pages 3554–3566)

      Raminder Gill, Philip K.-Y. Chang, George A. Prenosil, Emily C. Deane and Rebecca A. McKinney

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12367

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      Here, we report that following Schaffer collateral lesion, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) release can lead to axonal sprouting and hyperexcitability of area CA3 pyramidal neurons. Moreover, using patch-clamp and field EPSP recordings we show that this hyperexcitability is not due to changes in intrinsic electrical properties of CA3 pyramidal neurons, but rather through BDNF-dependent synapse formation.

    3. Upregulation of axon guidance molecules in the adult central nervous system of Nogo-A knockout mice restricts neuronal growth and regeneration (pages 3567–3579)

      Anissa Kempf, Laura Montani, Marija M. Petrinovic, Aileen Schroeter, Oliver Weinmann, Andrea Patrignani and Martin E. Schwab

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12357

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      Nogo-A KO mice show enhanced regenerative growth in vivo, even though less pronounced than after acute neutralization of Nogo-A. We show that developmental axon guidance cues are upregulated in the intact adult CNS following constitutive Nogo-A deletion, e.g. the EphrinA3/EphA4 ligand/receptor pair, and may account for residual growth inhibition after injury. Schematic drawing showing upregulated axon guidance cues and associated downstream signaling pathways, as well as a hypothetical mode of action of EphrinA3 through its receptor EphA4.

    4. Transporter-mediated replacement of extracellular glutamate for GABA in the developing murine neocortex (pages 3580–3588)

      Petr Unichenko, Anton Dvorzhak and Sergei Kirischuk

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12380

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      In the marginal zone of neonatal neocortex excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)-mediated glutamate uptake operating presumably via intracellular sodium signaling switches GABA transporters (GAT-2/3) into reverse mode. Thus, the strength or even the operating mode of GATs might be influenced by the status of EAATs. The observed interaction between EAATs and GATs also suggests that ambient glutamate and GABA levels are mutually dependent.

  3. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEWS
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1. Distribution of dopamine transporter immunoreactive fibers in the human amygdaloid complex (pages 3589–3601)

      María García-Amado and Lucía Prensa

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12358

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      Dopamine in the amygdaloid complex (AC) is necessary for fear conditioning and response to aversive stimuli. This quantitative study of the length of dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactive fibers demonstrates that every human AC nuclei receives selective dopaminergic innervation, reaching the highest density in the central nucleus, the main AC output station. Overall, the most densely DAT-positive fiber innervated AC nuclei receive strong projections from the ventral mesencephalon.

    2. Glutamate neurons in the substantia nigra compacta and retrorubral field (pages 3602–3610)

      Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Hui-Ling Wang and Marisela Morales

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12359

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      Dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra compacta (SNC), ventral tegmenta area (VTA) and retrorubral field (RRF) play a role in reward, motivation, learning, memory, and movement. These neurons are intermingled with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurons.

    3. Diversity, heterogeneity and orientation-dependent variation of spike count correlation in the cat visual cortex (pages 3611–3627)

      Yoshiko Maruyama and Hiroyuki Ito

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12363

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      Cortical neurons show large spike count variabilities and these variabilities are correlated over the cell population. We performed multi-neuron recordings on the cat visual cortex and found that the spike count correlation showed significant diversity, heterogeneity and orientation dependent variation. These results suggest that the correlated spike count variabilities originate not from fixed anatomical connections but rather from the dynamic interaction of neuronal networks.

    4. Different TRPV1-mediated brain responses to intragastric infusion of capsaicin and capsiate (pages 3628–3635)

      Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Yoshihito Nogusa, Yumi Ando and Hisayuki Uneyama

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12365

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      Awake functional MRI was used to investigate the brain response to the gut capsaicin and capsiate in mice. The BOLD signals in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) were increased by intragastric infusion of capsaicin and capsiate, but those in the periaqueductal grey (PAG) were increased by capsaicin, not by capsiate. These responses were not observed in TRPV1 KO mice, indicating both capsaicin and capsiate activated these brain regions through TRPV1 receptors.

    5. Central nesfatin-1 influences the excitability of ghrelin-responsive gastric distension neurons in the arcuate nucleus and reduces gastric motility in rats (pages 3636–3643)

      Zhi-ling Li, Luo Xu, Xiang-rong Sun, Fei-fei Guo, Yan-ling Gong and Sheng-li Gao

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12366

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      An involvement of hypothalamic Arc nesfatin-1 in the regulation of gastric motility has remained elusive. Here we found exogenous nesfatin-1 could play a role in the regulation of the neuronal firing activity in the Arc as well as gastric motility via the melanocortin pathway, and PVN may participate in the central mediation of the effects. This study provides a new guide for diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and potential neural mechanisms.

    6. Globus pallidus internus oscillatory activity is related to movement speed (pages 3644–3649)

      Arun Singh and Kai Bötzel

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12369

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      This study showed the nature of GPi oscillations during motor tasks, which were executed with the same movement amplitude but different speeds. Our results show a suppression of GPi low beta rhythm and elevation of gamma frequency rhythms during motor tasks in the contralateral side. The changes in these frequency bands were more prominent when speed of the task was increased. We conclude that GPi encodes the information of kinematic/scaling of movements.

  4. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEWS
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1. How attentional boost interacts with reward: the effect of dopaminergic medications in Parkinson's disease (pages 3650–3658)

      Szabolcs Kéri, Helga Nagy, Einat Levy-Gigi and Oguz Kelemen

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12350

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      We studied the effects of dopaminergic medications on attentional boost. Participants were asked to remember white target letters and ignore black distractors. Memory for target-paired and distractor-paired scenes was enhanced by dopamine replacement in Parkinson's disease. Enhanced attentional boost for distractor-paired scenes was related to increased attentional impulsivity. Attentional boost was dissociated from the alerting, orienting, and executive components of attention.

    2. Oral administration of the flavanol (−)-epicatechin bolsters endogenous protection against focal ischemia through the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway (pages 3659–3668)

      Christopher C. Leonardo, Megha Agrawal, Nilendra Singh, J. Russell Moore, Shyam Biswal and Sylvain Doré

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12362

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      Using two model systems of ischemia (oxygen glucose deprivation, OGD, and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, pdMCAO), we demonstrate epicatechin protection through activation of Nrf2. Epicatechin protected primary neurons from OGD by increasing neuronal viability and reducing protein oxidation. Nrf2 activation in pdMCAO also extends the benefits to improved performance on a complex sensorimotor task, highlighting the potential of flavan-3-ols in minimizing subsequent stroke injury.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine exert anti-inflammatory effects on inflammation-reactive astrocytes (pages 3669–3678)

      Linda Block, Per Jörneberg, Ulrika Björklund, Anna Westerlund, Björn Biber and Elisabeth Hansson

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12364

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      Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine interacts with the opioid-, 5-HT-, and glutamate- receptor systems and restore Ca2+ transients/oscillations to physiological levels in astrocytes. Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine prevent IL-1β secretion in inflammation-reactive astrocytes.

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