European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 2

July 2013

Volume 38, Issue 2

Pages 2199–2340

  1. REVIEW

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. CORRIGENDA
    1. Sleep: a synchrony of cell activity-driven small network states (pages 2199–2209)

      James M. Krueger, Yanhua H. Huang, David M. Rector and Daniel J. Buysse

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12238

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      A theory positing that sleep is initiated within small local neuronal networks is presented. Sleep-like states occur in small networks such as cortical columns and the biochemical events responsible include sleep regulatory substances. The activity-dependent local sleep mechanisms are associated with changes in receptor trafficking and provide an explanation for clinical phenomena such as sleep inertia and sleep disorders such as insomnia.

  2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. CORRIGENDA
    1. Odorant responsiveness of embryonic mouse olfactory sensory neurons expressing the odorant receptors S1 or MOR23 (pages 2210–2217)

      Rebecca S. Lam and Peter Mombaerts

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12240

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      We report patch-clamp recordings from embryonic mouse olfactory sensory neurons that express the odorant receptor gene S1 or MOR23, using the odorous ligands 2-phenylethyl alcohol or lyral. We identify E16.5 as the upper limit of the acquisition of odorant responsiveness by these neuronal populations. The S1 and MOR23 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb are formed postnatally. These neuronal populations can thus respond to a cognate odorant several days before their axons coalesce into glomeruli.

    2. Neuronal differentiation requires a biphasic modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication caused by dynamic changes of connexin43 expression (pages 2218–2228)

      Heiko Lemcke, Marie-Louise Nittel, Dieter G. Weiss and Sergei A. Kuznetsov

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12219

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      Our findings provide a dual function of GJIC in the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human progenitors, which is modulated by Cx43 expression. Strong cell- cell coupling, accompanied by high Cx43 expression, is required to maintain cells in a proliferative state. Decreased GJIC in the early stage of differentiation promotes neuronal differentiation, while a later re-increase of gap junctional coupling is important for the establishment of a dense neural network.

    3. Adenosine A1 and A2A receptor-mediated modulation of acetylcholine release in the mice neuromuscular junction (pages 2229–2241)

      Neus Garcia, Mercedes Priego, Teresa Obis, Manel M. Santafe, Marta Tomàs, Nuria Besalduch, MªAngel Lanuza and Josep Tomàs

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12220

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      Immunocytochemistry shows that purinergic receptors A1R and A2AR are present in the nerve endings at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Electrophysiology in µ-CgTx-GIIIB paralyzed muscles show that the receptors might have no real effect on neuromuscular transmission in resting conditions. However, these receptors can conserve resources by limiting spontaneous quantal leak of ACh (mainly A1Rs) and may protect synaptic function by reducing the magnitude of depression during repetitive activity.

    4. Visualisation and characterisation of oestrogen receptor α-positive neurons expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the oestrogen receptor α promoter (pages 2242–2249)

      Ken Ichi Matsuda, Miho Yanagisawa, Kazuhiro Sano, Ikuo Ochiai, Sergei Musatov, Kota Okoshi, Shinji Tsukahara, Sonoko Ogawa and Mitsuhiro Kawata

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12227

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      Transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of the ERα promoter has been generated. GFP-positive neurons were observed in areas previously reported to express ERα mRNA, and GFP signals mostly overlapped with ERα immunoreactivity. Targeting of ERα gene by adeno-associated virus-mediated small hairpin RNA expression induced GFP in the medial preoptic area, suggesting a negative feedback mechanism in which ERα controls expression of the ERα gene itself.

    5. Persistent firing supported by an intrinsic cellular mechanism in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells (pages 2250–2259)

      Arthur Jochems and Motoharu Yoshida

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12236

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      We have observed persistent neural activity following a step current injection (2 s, 100 pA or 200 ms, 100 pA) in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells under cholinergic stimulation. The persistent neural activity is independent of ionotropic synaptic transmission.

    6. Inhibition of protein kinase A activity depresses phrenic drive and glycinergic signalling, but not rhythmogenesis in anaesthetized rat (pages 2260–2270)

      P. G. R. Burke, L. O. Sousa, V. J. Tallapragada and A. K. Goodchild

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12230

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      We describe the role of endogenous Protein Kinase A (PKA) signalling in vivo in shaping the population activity of respiratory neurons that regulate respiratory rhythm and motor patterns. We identify two key functions of PKA activity: (i) potentiating inspiratory drive currents of prebötzinger neurons and phrenic premotor neurons that regulate the intensity of phrenic nerve discharge, and (ii) potentiating glycinergic transmission that restrains the frequency of rhythmic respiratory activity.

  3. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. CORRIGENDA
    1. Complete reorganization of the motor cortex of adult rats following long-term spinal cord injuries (pages 2271–2279)

      Shashank Tandon, Niranjan Kambi, Hisham Mohammed and Neeraj Jain

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12218

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      In rats with many months of recovery periods following lesions of the dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord, the motor cortex undergoes large-scale reorganization such that the whiskers or the neck movement representations expand to completely reactivate the entire de-efferented motor cortex.

    2. Syntenin-a promotes spinal cord regeneration following injury in adult zebrafish (pages 2280–2289)

      Yong Yu and Melitta Schachner

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12222

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      Syntenin-a is upregulated caudal to the lesion site following spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish. Knock-down syntenin-a expression by morpholino resulted in inhibition of locomotor recovery and regrowth of axons from brain. These observations indicate that syntenin-a is involved in central nervous system regeneration, potentially leading to novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may be require activation in the regeneration-deficient mammalian central nervous system.

    3. BOLD human responses to chromatic spatial features (pages 2290–2299)

      E. Castaldi, F. Frijia, D. Montanaro, M. Tosetti and M. C. Morrone

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12223

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      To study the selectivity of the human visual system to spatial phase, we measured the BOLD response to modulation of luminance and chromatic stimuli differing only in phase spectra: highly congruent or random. Strong phase selectivity was observed for both luminance and color stimuli, along both dorsal and ventral pathways. V1 showed a balanced response to all stimuli, suggesting the existence of equal number of even- and odd- chromatic receptive fields.

  4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. CORRIGENDA
    1. Involvement of the insular cortex in the consolidation and expression of contextual fear conditioning (pages 2300–2307)

      Fernando H. F. Alves, Felipe V. Gomes, Daniel G. Reis, Carlos C. Crestani, Fernando M. A. Corrêa, Francisco S. Guimarães and Leonardo B. M. Resstel

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12210

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      The IC microinjection of CoCl2, either after the conditioning session or before the test session, attenuated the behavioral (freezing) and cardiovascular responses evoked by the re-exposure to an aversively conditioned context. However, the inactivation of the IC did not impair the acquisition of the contextual fear memory when CoCl2 was microinjected before the conditioning session. These results suggest the involvement of IC in both the consolidation and expression of contextual fear memory.

    2. Social reward: interactions with social status, social communication, aggression, and associated neural activation in the ventral tegmental area (pages 2308–2318)

      Mario Gil, Ngoc-Thao Nguyen, Mark McDonald and H. Elliott Albers

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12216

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      Male Syrian hamsters develop a conditioned place preference (CPP) for social interactions. However, as shown in Figs A & B, social status increases reward value. That is, the effects of conditioning on the development of a CPP are significantly greater for dominant males compared to their subordinate partners. Direct social interactions induce high levels of Fos-ir in the VTA when compared to less direct forms of social contact (i.e., exposure to a caged stimulus hamster) or no social stimulus (Figs C & D). In addition, high levels of neural activation in the VTA are associated with high levels of aggression and social dominance behaviors, and social experience modulates the response of the VTA to novel social stimuli. Therefore, our data suggest that the mesolimbic reward system may play a role in social reward.

    3. Diurnal rhythms in neural activation in the mesolimbic reward system: critical role of the medial prefrontal cortex (pages 2319–2327)

      Ricardo M. Baltazar, Lique M. Coolen and Ian C. Webb

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12224

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      Previous evidence suggests a circadian modulation of drug-seeking behavior and responsiveness to drugs of abuse. To identify potential mechanisms for rhythmicity in reward, a maker of neural activation (cFos) was examined across the day in the mesolimbic reward system.

    4. Striatal modulation of BDNF expression using microRNA124a-expressing lentiviral vectors impairs ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference and voluntary alcohol consumption (pages 2328–2337)

      Amine Bahi and Jean-Luc Dreyer

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12228

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      Alcohol abuse is a major health, economic and social concern in modern societies but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol addiction remain elusive. Recent findings show that small non-coding microRNA (miRNA) signaling contributes to complex behavioral disorders including drug addiction.

  5. CORRIGENDA

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    6. CORRIGENDA
    1. You have free access to this content
      Syntaxin 1 is required for DCC/Netrin-1-dependent chemoattraction of migrating neurons from the lower rhombic lip (page 2338)

      Tiziana Cotrufo, Rosa María Andrés, Oriol Ros, Francesc Pérez-Brangulí, Ashraf Muhaisen, Giulia Fuschini, Ramón Martínez, Marta Pascual, Joan X. Comella and Eduardo Soriano

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12312

      This article corrects:
    2. You have free access to this content
      Aging and neurogenesis in the adult forebrain: what we have learned and where we should go from here (page 2339)

      Laura K. Hamilton, Sandra E. Joppé, Loïc M. Cochard and Karl J. L. Fernandes

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12326

      This article corrects:

      Aging and neurogenesis in the adult forebrain: what we have learned and where we should go from here

      Vol. 37, Issue 12, 1978–1986, Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2013

    3. You have free access to this content
      γ-Secretase binding sites in aged and Alzheimer's disease human cerebrum: the choroid plexus as a putative origin of CSF Aβ (page 2340)

      Fei Liu, Zhi-Qin Xue, Si-Hao Deng, Xiong Kun, Xue-Gang Luo, Peter R. Patrylo, Gregory M. Rose, Huaibin Cai, Robert G. Struble, Yan Cai and Xiao-Xin Yan

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12327

      This article corrects:

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